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Uyiseta njani i-Encoder yakho yoSasazo lwe-IPTV yoSasazo?

Uyiseta njani i-Encoder yakho yoSasazo lwe-IPTV yoSasazo?

Ukwazi Sakaza ividiyo ngaphezulu kwe-Intanethi kuyinto enzima yobugcisa. Ifuna ukuqonda okuhle kwenani leenxalenye zeendawo ezisebenzayo. Kungenxa yoko le bhlog yethu ilapha-ukukunceda ukuba uqonde ezi nkqubo ukuze ukwazi ukwenza ukhetho olufanelekileyo xa kufika ixesha lokwenza usasazo olubalulekileyo.

Ukugxila kwale bhlog iya kuba kwicala lokubhaliweyo lokusasazwa bukhoma. Ngokukodwa, siza kuhlolisisa useto oza kulusebenzisa kwikhowudi yakho. Kodwa kuqala, masinike intshayelelo emfutshane kakhulu yokuba iyintoni na encoder, kuba abo bafuna ukwakha isiseko sabo ulwazi kuqala.

Intombazana enxibe ibhulukhwe eluhlaza kunye nekhamera

Injongo ye-Encoder yokuSasaza ngokuBukhoma

Ukusasazwa kwevidiyo yedijithali konke malunga nokufaka ikhowudi. Ukufakwa kwikhowudi kunxulumene nokucinezelwa kwevidiyo kunye nefomathi. Kwimeko ekrwada, ividiyo yedijithali inokubandakanya uluhlu lwemifanekiso esele ibonakaliswe ngokulandelelana ngelixa ithrekhi yomsindo idlala ngasemva.

Nangona kunjalo, le ndlela yokusasaza ividiyo isebenzisa indawo enkulu. Umzuzu omnye wobukhulu okanye obunganyanzelwanga bumgangatho ophezulu wevidiyo ungasebenzisa i-GB emininzi yendawo yokugcina. Xa i-footage iqala ukufumana i-30, 60, imizuzu engama-90 ubude okanye ixesha elide, ubukhulu beefayile bukhulu kakhulu ukuba bujongane nayo.

Isisombululo kukucinezelwa: indlela yemathematics “yokukhuphela” ngaphandle idatha engafunekiyo. Ukucinezelwa kwevidiyo kunciphisa ubungakanani befayile ngokukhupha idatha yamacandelo evidiyo angatshintshi kwisakhelo-ukuya kwisakhelo. Umzekelo, ukuba ikona yevidiyo imnyama kangangemizuzu eli-10 ngokuthe ngqo, uninzi lwedatha eyiyo inokuphoswa ize itshintshe ireferensi enje, "yenza le ikona ibe mnyama kwizakhelo ezilandelayo ezingama-300."

Ukusasazeka okubukhoma kuya kunciphisa i-bitrate, okanye ubungakanani, nevidiyo yokusasazeka ukwenza ukuba kube nakho ukuthumela umxholo kwi-Intanethi.

Amanqanaba aphezulu okucinezelwa angalinciphisa kakhulu izinga levidiyo, ayenze ibukeke ngakumbi. "Iikhowudi ezininzi" ezahlukeneyo (okanye imigangatho yokufaka ikhowudi / yokushicilela ividiyo evaliweyo) ziye zaphuhliswa kwiminyaka edlulileyo, kwaye ziyafumaneka ukulwa nalo mbandela.

Ukusasazwa okwenziwe kwiMidiya

Nangona kunjalo, kukho enye into xa kuziwa ekufomekweni kweekhowudi: ukuhamba. Akukho vidiyo iluhlaza okanye iifom zevidiyo ezibandakanyiweyo ezenzelwe ukusasazwa kwi-Intanethi. Iifomathi zotshintsho zisebenzisa uphawu oluthile kunye nezikhongozelo ukuqinisekisa ukuba ividiyo inokuhanjiswa ngesiqwengana ngaphandle kokucekeceke okanye iimpazamo. Ke ngoko, ii-encoders azigcini nje ngokucinezela ividiyo, kodwa ziyitshintshe ibe ziifomathi ezifanelekileyo ukusasazwa. Ngokuqonda okuyisiseko, sikulungele ukuseta i-encoder yomjelo obukhoma.

Cwangcisa i-Encoder yokuSasazwa ngokuBanzi

Ukuseta i-encoder kunokuba yinto edidayo, kodwa wakuqonda ukuba zithini na iisetingi ezahlukeneyo kumjelo wakho, kulula kakhulu. Apha, siza kudwelisa uluhlu lwezona zinto ziqhelekileyo ezifumanekayo kumaqonga ahlukeneyo encoder.

Oku kunokuhluka ngesicelo, ke ukuba udibana nesicwangciso ongasiqondiyo, jonga kuxwebhu lweqonga lakho. Kungenjalo, thumela apha izimvo kwaye siya kwenza konke okusemandleni ethu ukukunceda ucombulule ingxaki.

Ungawukhetha njani uMthombo

Into yokuqala ekumiselweni kwayo nayiphi na i-encoder ephilayo kukuba ukhethe imithombo yeendaba. Le isenokuba yikhamera yewebhu ye-IP, igalelo leHDMI ukusuka kwikhamera, okanye iifayile zemithombo yeendaba ezisebusweni kwikhompyuter yakho. Imithombo yomsindo ngokufanayo iya kuba ziikrofoni (ezimeleyo okanye zakhelwe ikhamera) okanye iifayile eziviweyo.

Ukuba usebenza kwimeko yekhamera emininzi, umthombo wakho unokuba kukutya okukodwa okuvela kwizixhobo zakho zokutshintsha-ubomi. Ngokwahlukileyo, iqonga lakho lokufaka ikhowudi linokuxhasa ukutshintshwa okwenzeka ngokwakho - amaqonga e-vMix, umzekelo, ukuxhasa ukutshintshwa okubukhoma.

Nokuba yeyiphi na indlela, qiniseka ukuba ukhetha imithombo efanelekileyo yevidiyo kunye nevidiyo yomxholo onqwenela ukusasaza. Umngxunya omnye wokuthintela apha kukukhetha umthombo ongalunganga, njengokuchonga eyakhelwe-in-in-imeyile kwi-laptop yakho njengomthombo wentengiso wosasazo lwakho.

Enye yeCodec yeVidiyo ezayo

I-RGB esisiseko

Inketho elandelayo ekufuneka uyiqwalasele yeyiphi "i-codec" (okanye inkqubo yokucinezelwa) ongathanda ukuba i-encoder yakho idale kwaye isasaze. Eyona codec ixhaphakileyo yokusasazwa bukhoma ibizwa H.264 kwaye ixhaswa phantse kuzo zonke izixhobo zanamhlanje ezinesakhono sevidiyo. Ezinye ii-codecs ezizayo, ezithembisa ukunciphisa ubungakanani befayile ngelixa zigcina umgangatho, zibandakanya i-H.265 kunye ne-VP10.

Nangona kunjalo, ukubambelela kumgangatho we-H.264 ngowokubheja kwakho okwangoku. Umahluko omnye onokubona ubizwa ngokuba yi-x264. Le yindlela ethile yokufaka ikhowudi ividiyo eyi-H.264. Ukufaka ikhowudi nge-x264 kuhlala kusetyenziswa izixhobo ze-CPU ezimbalwa kunezinye iindlela, kodwa ungakuvavanya oku ngaphambi kokuba uqalise.

Inqaku kumaZiko amaninzi

Qaphela ukuba uninzi lwezicwangciso ezichazwe ngezantsi ziyasebenza kubasebenzisi abanezantya ezahlukeneyo zonxibelelwano kwi-Intanethi. Uninzi olusebenzayo lwangoku lusasaza ukukhetha ukusasaza imijelo emininzi, ngaxeshanye yomxholo ofanayo, kunye nekhowudi nganye encinci kwixabiso elincinci (inani ledatha elithunyelwe umzuzwana). Ezi zinokuhanjiswa kubasebenzisi abanonxibelelwano olucothayo, oluphakathi nolukhawulezayo kwi-Intanethi ukunika umntu ngamnye amava afanelekileyo.

I-Audio Codec

Kuya kufuneka ukhethe ukuba yeyiphi iododec yomsindo oza kuyithumela nakwi-flow yakho. Ezona ziseto ziqhelekileyo zi-MP3 kunye ne-AAC, iifomati zomsindo ezinokuthi phantse zonke izixhobo zixhase. Sicebisa i-AAC phantse kuwo onke amatyala njengoko ifunwa zizixhobo zeApple zeApple.

Ixabiso leSampulu yeRediyo

Olunye useto lomsindo oluqhelekileyo kuya kufuneka ukhethe "ngumgangatho weesampuli ezivakalayo." Oku kubhekisele kwinani leemilinganiselo zomsindo ezithathwe ngomzuzwana ngexesha lokurekhoda okunikiweyo. Sicebisa ukuba usete ireyithi yesampulu ibe ngu-44100 KHz kuyo yonke imisinga ebukhoma. Lo ngumgangatho kuzo zonke izixhobo zomsindo kunye nokurekhodwa.

Ukusasazwa kweVidiyo

Isisombululo somjelo wakho sibhekisa kubungakanani (umda wepikseli) yesakhelo sevidiyo. Ubungakanani obuqhelekileyo bevidiyo obusetyenziswayo namhlanje zezi:

  • 426 x 240 (240p)
  • I-640 x 360 (360p, Inkcazo ephantsi)
  • 854 x 480 (480p, Inkcazo eMiselweyo, okanye SD)
  • I-1280 x 720 (720p HD)
  • I-1920 x 1080 (1080p, okanye i-HD epheleleyo)
  • I-3840 x 2160 (yaziwa ngokuba yi-4K okanye i-Ultra HD)

Isisombululo osikhethayo sevidiyo yakho sixhomekeka kwizinto ezininzi. Okokuqala, zonke izixhobo zakho kufuneka zixhase isisombululo sakho esikhethiweyo, kubandakanya isantya kunye nendawo yokugcina. Ukuphakama kwesisombululo sokuphakama kuthatha amandla amaninzi okusombulula ukukhawulezisa.

Okwesibini, isantya sakho se-Intanethi kufuneka sikwazi ukusamkela isigqibo osikhethileyo. Ngelixa ukusonjululwa kungadibaniswanga ngokungqongqo kumgangatho wenqanaba, iividiyo ezisonjululwayo eziphezulu zifuna bandwidth engaphezulu ukuze zibonakale zilungile. Akunamsebenzi ukuthumela uqhagamshelo lwevidiyo ye-HD ukuba i-bandwidth yakho ayinakho ukulixhasa elo nqanaba lomgangatho kweso sisombululo.

Ireyithi yeSakhelo sevidiyo

Ireyithi yesakhelo imane ibhekisa kwinani lemifanekiso ethathwa kwisibini ngekhamera yakho. Oku kuqhelekile zizakhelo ezingama-29.97 ngomzuzwana (zijikeleza ukuya kuma-30 fps), kodwa ama-25 kunye nama-24 fps aqhelekile. Eminye imicimbi yemidlalo nolunye usasazo olujongana neentshukumo ezikhawulezayo zikhetha ukusasaza kwii-fps ezingama-60 ukwenza intshukumo ibonakale ngakumbi. Ukuba uyathandabuza, namathela nge-30 fps.

IProtocol yokuSasazwa ngokuBanzi: HLS, RTMP

Ingqondo yolwaphulo-mthetho lwekhompyuter

Iividiyo zokusasaza ngokuvakalayo zithunyelwa ngenani leeprothokholi zivela ngokuhamba kwexesha. Eyona nto ixhaphakileyo kunye nokuhlala ixesha elide kwezi zibizwa ngokuba yi-RTMP. I-RTMP, okanye iProtocol yokuThunyelwa kweXesha lexesha, ngumgangatho weMacromedia (Adobe) yokusasaza ividiyo, iaudio, kunye nemethadatha kwi-Intanethi ngexesha lokwenyani. Uninzi lweekhowudi, kubandakanya nezo zisuka kwiprojekthi ye-OBS, iWirecast, vMix, kunye neAdobe's Flash Media Live Encoder, inokusebenzisa i-RTMP.

I-RTMP ngumgangatho oguqukayo kunye nowomeleleyo, kodwa ayisoloko yanele namhlanje. Kungenxa yokuba ifuna ababukeli ukuba basebenzise izixhobo ezineFlash Player efakwe kwisixhobo sabo. Ukunyuka, iFlash iyarhatyathwa ngokuthatha umhlala phantsi ifunelwa iinkqubo ezithembakeleyo nezikhuselekileyo zokuhambisa ividiyo, kunye namaqonga amaninzi eselula - ngokukodwa i-iOS kwii-iPhones nee-iPads- ayixhasi iFlash.

Nangona kunjalo, ukutya kwe-RTMP iseyindlela esemgangathweni yokufumana umjikelo osuka kwi-encoder yakho uye kwiiseva zokuhambisa. Ngomamkeli wevidiyo ofanelekileyo, umxhasi omnye we-RTMP osuka kwi-encoder yakho unokutshintshelwa kwenye, imigangatho ehambelana ngakumbi, enjengeHLS kunye ne-HDS, ngokuzenzekelayo kwisiphelo seseva.

Apha kwi-DaCast, sisebenzisa ukupakisha okwenziwe ngumjelo ka-Akamai wenkonzo yokuSasazeka kweHlabathi kule nkqubo. Ukupakisha umda we-Akamai's Stream kufaka umjelo we-RTMP usuka kwi-encoder yakho kwaye uyigqithise ngokuzenzekelayo kuyo zombini i-HLS kunye ne-HDS kufutshane nexesha lokwenyani, ukulungiselela umjelo wayo nayiphi na ifomati yesixhobo. Le nkqubo ibangela ukulibaziseka kwesibini kwe-30-45 okwesibini kokondliwa.

Ixabiso le-Bit Bit

Mhlawumbi esona sicwangciso sibalulekileyo kuyo yonke inkqubo yokwenza ikhowudi yinqanaba elincinci. Iqondo elincinci ngumgca osezantsi ogqiba ukuba ingakanani idatha yakho yokusasaza oza kuyisebenzisa. Nokuba yeyiphi na oyibeka umyinge wokugqibela, inqanaba ledatha yakho aliyi kunyuka liphezulu kuneli.

Amanqanaba ebheyiti athelekiswa ngeentsimbi ngomzuzwana, kodwa ngakumbi rhoqo kwii-Kilobits ngomzuzwana (8 i-Kilobits = 1 kilobyte). Ireyithi ye-Bit ngokusisiseko ibeka ubungakanani bubanzi bebhendi yakho oya kuyisebenzisa. Inani eliphezulu le-Kilobits ngomzuzwana lisebenzisa idatha engaphezulu. Oku kubalulekile kwizizathu ezininzi ezinxulumene nesantya se-Intanethi.

Kuqala, isantya sakho sokulayisha kufuneka sikhawuleze kwaye sizinzise ngokwaneleyo ukuze kuxhaswe ukulayisha kwesi santya kwixesha losasazo lwakho. Ngokubanzi, sicebisa ukuba isantya sakho sokulayisha sikwazi ukufikelela kwisantya ubuncinci kabini koko kulindelweyo.

Apha zi izindululo eziqhelekileyo ngamaxabiso encinci kwizigqibo ezahlukeneyo zevidiyo:

  • Ividiyo ye-360p: 400 Kbps - 1000 Kbps
  • I-480p ividiyo: 500 Kbps - 2 Mbps (1 Mbps = 1000 Kbps)
  • Ividiyo ye-720p: 1.5 - 4 Mbps
  • Ividiyo ye-1080p: 3 - 6 Mbps

Khumbula, kwakhona, ukuba iimfuno zakho zebhendi iyakuba lilonke kuyo yonke imifudlana yakho eyangeziweyo. Ke ukuba usasaza umjelo oyi-360p, umjelo oyi-720p, nomjelo we-1080p, kunye nesandi ngasinye, ungasasaza inani elipheleleyo le-12 Mbps yedatha. Oku kuthetha ukuba uqhagamshelo lwakho lweintanethi kufuneka lukwazi ukugcina isantya sokulayisha esingama-24 Mbps.

Ixabiso le-Bit CBR vs. Inani leBit I-VBR

Umbuzo omnye kukuba kusetyenziswe ireyithithi rhoqo (i-CBR) okanye ireyithithi ye-bit bit (VBR). Sebenzisa i-VBR kuthetha ukuba ukusebenzisa kwakho idatha kuya kuncipha ukuba umxholo wevidiyo uhanjiswa ngexesha elinikiweyo awunalo ulwazi oluninzi. Ngokwahlukileyo, ukusetyenziswa kwedatha kuya kuba ngaphezulu ukuba kukho isenzo esininzi esikrinini.

Usebenzisa i-CBR ukhokelela kwisantya esijikelezayo, esinokuthenjwa njenge-VBR sinokubangela i-spikes ezinkulu ekusebenziseni idatha. Nangona kunjalo, ukusebenzisa i-VBR kunokunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kwebhendi yakho iyonke, enokunciphisa iindleko. Sincoma ukusebenzisa i-CBR ngaphandle kokuba uxhalabile malunga neendleko zebandwidth.

Ungayibeka njani iirhafu zee-Audio Bit

Ixabiso lokukhala komsindo ikwayinto oya kuyifuna ukuyibeka. Sicebisa ezi zicwangciso zilandelayo:

  • Kwividiyo ye-360p: i-64 Kbps ye-audi, i-mono
  • Kwividiyo engama-480p: 128 Kbps, isitayile
  • Kwividiyo engama-720p: 128 Kbps, isitayile
  • Kwividiyo eyi-1080p nangaphezulu: 256 Kbps, isitayile

I- "Mono" okanye "i-stereo" ibhekisa kwinani leziteshi zokumamela: inye okanye zimbini. Oku kuseta kunokubhekiswa "njengejelo." Khetha useto olufanelekileyo kwisisombululo sakho njengoko kudweliswe apha ngasentla.

Ubungakanani beBuffer

Oku kucwangciswa kwangaphambili kunento yokwenza nendlela idatha yevidiyo eye yagcinwa ngayo kwimizuzu emifutshane ngaphambi kokuba isasazwe. Ubungakanani buffer obuphezulu bunonyusa umgangatho wokuhamba, kodwa okunokunyusa inqanaba ledatha yakho ngalo mzuzu awunikiweyo ngaphezulu kwenqanaba lakho elincinci olukhethiweyo.

Ngelixa oku kungachaphazeli ireyiti yakho encinci (ii-algorithms ziya kubuyekezwa ngokunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kwedatha ngamanye amaxesha), inokubangela imiba esemgangathweni yabanye ababukeli. Sincoma ukuba usete ubungakanani be-buffer efanayo nenqanaba lakho leenqanaba lokuqinisekisa ukuhanjiswa okugudileyo kwaye akukho spikes ekusebenziseni idatha.

Ukudibanisa kwiVidiyo yakho yeVidiyo

Ngoku ukuba ufunde indlela yokuseta ividiyo kunye nesandi sokumamela kwikhowudi yakho, inyathelo lokugqibela kukunxibelelanisa ikhowudi yakho kunye neseva yokungena. Kwiplatfti ye-DaCast, uya kunikwa ngamaqhezu ulwazi xa usenza umjelo: "igama lomjelo," "umjelo we-URL," ikhowudi yokungena, kunye negama lokugqitha. Ungalifaka olu lwazi kwi-encoder yakho ukunxibelelana neseva zika-DaCast kwaye uqalise ukulayisha.

Ezinye iisethingi

Xa useta ikhowudi yakho, unokuhlangana nezinye iisetingi. Nantsi inkcazo yolunye useto olufumaneka kwiAdobe Flash Media Live Encoder. Ezinye iikhowudi kufuneka zibe neesetingi ezifanayo.

  • “Ubungakanani bokufakelwa” kunye “nobungakanani bokuPhuma” kubhekisele kwisisombululo sevidiyo iza kuvela kwiikhamera zakho, kunye nesisombululo osikhethileyo sokukhupha njengomjelo obukhoma.
  • "I-FMS URL" yi-URL yomncedisi wakho wokungenisa imithombo yeendaba.
  • "Umsinga" ihlala iyibhokisi oza kungena kuyo igama lakho.
  • "Gcina kwifayile" ikuvumela ukuba kwangaxeshanye ugcine usasazo lwakho kwidrayivu yokugcina.

Izixhobo zekhomputha Hardware vs.

Kukho iintlobo ezininzi zeekhowudi ezinokwahlulahlulwa zibe zibini iindidi eziphambili: isixhobo esinezixhobo kunye nesoftware. Ii-encodware ze-Hardware ziizixhobo ezinikezelweyo ezisetyenziselwa ukufakelwa kobuchule kwimithombo bukhoma. Banamandla, bathembekile, kwaye banokuba neempawu ezintle ezifana nokwakhelwa ngaphakathi kokudityaniswa kwesoftware. Ababoneleli abaphambili beekhowudi zeekhompyuter zibandakanya vMix kwaye Teradek. Nangona kunjalo, ezi zihlala zibiza kakhulu.

Ii-encoders zeSoftware ziluhambo olukhulu kuhlahlo-lwabiwo mali oluncinci. Ii-encoders zesoftware zizicelo nje ezinjengezinye ezinokufakwa kwikhompyuter okanye kwikhompyuter yelaptop. Kuya kufuneka uqiniseke ukuba le khompyuter inamandla ngokwaneleyo okusingatha umjelo wevidiyo bukhoma ngaphambi kokuba uxhomekeke kuyo ngexesha losasazo. Njengoko sisoloko sisithi: vavanya, vavanya, vavanya!

Umzekelo osimahla wesoftware encoder yiAdobe I-Flash Media Live Encoder. Le phakheji yesoftware ibonelela ngezixhobo ezininzi zokufumana ukusasaza bukhoma kunye nokusebenza. Omnye umzekelo yi-OBS, okanye uvule isoftware yeSoftware. Le phakheji inamandla, inokulungiswa, kwaye inokufakwa phantse kuyo nayiphi na ikhompyuter. Unokufunda ngakumbi nge-OBS kwaye ukhuphele usetyenziso kubo iwebhusayithi yeprojekthi.

Shiya iMpendulo