I-eriyali esebenzayo 1 to 20dB, 1-30 MHz ububanzi

I-eriyali esebenzayo 1 to 20dB, 1-30 MHz ububanzi.nguRodney A. KreuterandTony van Roon

“Xa ikamva okanye abamelwane abangalunganga bekuthintela ukuba ungadibani ne-eriyali ende, uya kufumanisa ukuba i-eriyali enesayizi ephaketheni iya kunika into enye, okanye ngcono. Le "Antena esebenzayo" ishibhile ukwakha "kwaye inoluhlu olu-1 kuye kwi-30Mhz phakathi kwe-14 ne-20dB inzuzo."
Fokanye ukwamkelwa okuqhelekileyo kwamaza amaza rhoqo, umthetho oqhelekileyo "kukude kube kukuqina kokuqina okufunyenweyo. Ngelishwa, phakathi kwabamelwane abangathandekiyo, imithetho ethintelweyo yezindlu, kunye neepropathi ezizezona zikhulu kakhulu kunesitampu sokuposa, esifutshane I-eriyali ye-anvena ihlala ijika ibe ziimitha ezimbalwa zeengcingo eziphoselwe ngaphandle kwefestile- kunokuba iinyawo ezili-130 ze-antennal yentsimbi ende esingathanda ukuyibopha phakathi kweitayile ezimbini eziimitha ezingama-50.

Ngethamsanqa, kukho enye indlela efanelekileyo ye-antenna yocingo olude, kwaye yile i-eriyali esebenzayo; esisiseko sine-antenna emfutshane kakhulu kunye ne-amplifier ephezulu yokufumana inzuzo. Iyunithi yam isebenze ngempumelelo iminyaka elishumi. Isebenza ngokwanelisayo.

Uluvo lwe-eriyali esebenzayo ilula ngokufanelekileyo. Kuba i-antenna incinci ngokwasemzimbeni, ayichaphazeli amandla amaninzi njenge-antenna enkulu, sisebenzisa nje i-amplifier ye-RF eyakhelweyo ukwenza isibonakaliso esibonakalayo "sokulahleka". Uninzi lwamamkeli lwenzelwe ukusebenza nge-antenna engama-50.

I-eriyali esebenzayo inokwakhelwa naluphi na uluhlu oluhamba rhoqo, kodwa zihlala zisetyenziswa ukusuka kwiVLF (10KHz okanye njalo) ukuya kuthi ga kwi-30MHz. Isizathu soko kungenxa yokuba i-antennas epheleleyo yobungakanani bamaxesha amade ihlala inde kakhulu kwindawo ekhoyo. Kwimilinganiselo ephezulu, kulula kakhulu ukuyila i-eriyali encinci yokufumana inzuzo.

I-eriyali esebenzayo eboniswe ngezantsi (umzobo 1), ibonelela ngenzuzo ye-14-20dB kwisandisi-manqaku esantya eshushu kunye nerediyo-amateur frequency ye-1-30MHz. Njengoko unokulindela, unciphise imvamisa kokukhona uya kufumana inzuzo. Ukufumana i-20dB kuqhelekile ukusuka kwi-1-18 MHz, ukwehla ukuya kwi-14dB kwi-30MHz.

Uyilo lwesekethe:
Kuba i-antennas ezimfutshane kakhulu kune-1/4 ye-wavelength inikezela kancinci kwaye iyasebenza kakhulu kwaye ixhomekeka kumfutho ofunyenweyo, akukho nzame yenziweyo yokutsala impembelelo ye-antenna-iyakungqina ubunzima kwaye iyakhathaza ukutshatisa ukungalingani ngaphezulu kweshumi leminyaka ukugubungela rhoqo. Endaweni yoko, inqanaba lokufaka (i-Q1) ngumlandeli womthombo we-JFET, omgalelo wakhe wokufaka phezulu ubambe ngempumelelo iimpawu ze-antenna nakweyiphi na imvamisa. Nangona uninzi lweentlobo ezahlukeneyo zeJFET zingasetyenziswa-njenge-MPF102, NTE451, okanye 2N4416-khumbula ukuba impendulo ephezulu yesantya esekwe ziimpawu ze-amplifier yeJFET.

I-Transistor Q2 isetyenziswa njenge-emitter-umlandeli ukubonelela ngemithwalo ephezulu ye-Q1, kodwa okubaluleke ngakumbi, ibonelela ngesithintelo sedrayivu ephantsi ye-emitter amplifier Q3 eqhelekileyo, ebonelela zonke yokufumana amandla ombane. Elona phawu libalulekileyo le-Q3 yi fTI-frequency frequency cut-off, ekufuneka ikuluhlu lwe-200-400 MHz. I-2N3904, okanye i-2N2222 isebenza kakuhle kwi-Q3.

Eyona nto ibaluleke kakhulu kwiiparamitha zesekethe ye-Q3 kukuhla kwevolthi kuyo yonke i-R8: Okukhona uya kusihla, uya kuba mkhulu umvuzo. Nangona kunjalo, i-passband iyancipha njengoko inzuzo ye-Q3 inyuka.

I-Transistor Q4 iguqula ukutshintsha okunomndilili kokulinganisa kwe-Q3 ibe ngumqobo ophantsi, kuze oko kubonelele ukuqhuba okwaneleyo kokufakelwa kwe-antenna ye-50-ohm.

Umzobo osebenzayo we-Antenna Schematic

Uluhlu lweenxalenye kunye nezinye izinto:

I-Semiconductors:
      Q1 = MPF102, JFET. (2N4416, NTE451, ECG451, njl.) I-Q2, Q3, Q4 = 2N3904, i-NPN transistor

Abachasi:
Zonke ii-Resistors zi-5%, 1/4-watt
    R1 = 1 MegOhm R5 = 10K R2, R10 = 22 ohm R6, R9 = 1K R3, R11 = 2K2 R7 = 3K3 R4 = 22K R8 = 470 ohm

Abavavanyi (ukalwe ubuncinci yi-16V):
   C1, C3 = 470pF C2, C5, C6 = 0.01uF (10nF) C4 = 0.001uF (1nF) C7, C9 = 0.1uF (100nF) C8 = 22uF / 16V, elektroniki

Icandelo lezinto ezahlukeneyo:
  B1 = 9-volt Alkaline ibhetri engu-S1 = i-SPST yokucima ngaphandle kwe-J1 = Ujack ukumadanisa (yakho) ikheyitha yokufumana i-ANT1 = Telescoping whip antenna (isikroba somthi), ucingo, intonga yobhedu (malunga ne-12 ") MISC = izixhobo ze-PCB, ukubiyela, umnini webhetri, i-9V ibhetri snap, njl. 

I-eriyali inokuphantse ibe nantoni na; isiqwenga eside secingo, intonga yentsimbi yobhedu, okanye i-antenna ye-telescopic ethe yafunyanwa kwiradiyo yakudala. Ii-eriyali zokutshintshwa kweTeleskopu zeradiyo ye transistor ikwafumaneka kwabathengisi kunye nabathengisi beenxalenye ze-elektroniki.

Ukwakhiwa:
I-amplifier yeyunithi yeprototype isebenzisa ibhodi yesekethe eprintiweyo (bona ngezantsi). I-amplifier inokudityaniswa kwi-wiring board (kwi-vero board), kodwa ngenxa yokuba ikhona ezinye ubuntununtunu kulwakhiwo lwamacandelo, sicebisa ukuba wenze ibhodi yesekethe eprintiweyo (PCB) yeziphumo ezilungileyo.

PCB Ubume beCandelo
Umzobo wokubekwa kwamacandelo uboniswe kwiUfu. 2. Qaphela ukuba nangona isikhombisi sebhetri (somhlaba) esibuyiselweyo sibuyiselwa kwibhodi yePC, ukuphuma-jack J1 kunokunxibelelana nomhlaba wekhabhathi. Umdibaniso womhlaba phakathi kwebhodi yePC kunye nekhabhathi yenziwa ngeentsimbi zentsimbi okanye ispacers ezisetyenziselwa ukukhwela ibhodi ye-PC kwindawo ebiyelweyo. SENZA * HAYI * ungene endaweni yokuma kweplastikhi okanye kwisikhala kuba ayizukubonelela ngomdibaniso womhlaba phakathi kwebhodi yePC, ikhabinet, kunye neJ1. Ukuba uthatha isigqibo sokusebenzisa ikhabhathi yepulasitiki ukufaka i-amplifier, qiniseka ukuba uqhagamshelo lwe-J1 libuyiselwe kumhlaba we-foil ojikeleze umphandle we-PC-board.

I-antenna ye-telescopic inyuka embindini webhodi yePC. Ukusuka kwicala le-foil lebhodi, ligqithise isikroba salo esimalunga nomngxuma okwibhodi yePC kwaye emva koko uthengise intloko yesikere kwipali yayo. Kokubini ukufakwa kunye nenkxaso, sisebenzisa iplasitiki okanye igabha yegrommet phakathi kwe-antenna kunye nomngxuma okwikhava yekhabhine apho i-antenna idlula khona. Kwipinki, iinguqu ezininzi zetapeyiti esemgangathweni esemgangathweni egqunywe emngxunyeni we-antenna inokufakwa endaweni yegromet yerabha.

Ukuba uthatha isigqibo sokwenza amalungiselelo e-antenna yeengcingo, faka isithuba esiyi-5 sokubopha kwikhomishini. Emva koko, qiniseka ukuba uqhagamshela ubude obufutshane beentambo phakathi kwepali ye-antenna ye-foil kunye neposi yokubopha.

Uhlengahlengiso:
Ukuba unomdla kububanzi obuncinci obujikelezayo kune-1-30MHz, i-resistor R1 inokutshintshwa nge-LC tank ejikelezwe kumbindi woluhlu olufunayo. Isekethe ye-LC iya kuphucula ukwaliwa kweempawu ngaphandle komhla wenzala yakho, kodwa khumbula ukuba ayizukuphucula inzuzo ye-amplifier.

Ukuba inzala yakho yeyona nto iphantsi kakhulu (i-VLF), impendulo ephindaphindiweyo ye-amplifier inokuphuculwa ngokunyusa amaxabiso e-capacitors C1 kunye no-C3. (Kuya kufuneka uvavanye amaxabiso.)
Nangona ibhetri ye-9-volt ingumthombo wamandla ocetyiswayo, iamplifier kufuneka isebenze kakuhle kusetyenziswa i-6-15 volts. Ingaphakathi lekhabhathi ye prototype egqityiweyo, isebenzisa ibhetri ye-9-volt njengombane wamandla, kuboniswe kwiUfu. 3.

Ubume beCandelo
Ukulungisa ingxaki:
Imijikelezo yesekethe yombane wombane we-9-volt iboniswe kumzobo wesikim. 1. Ukuba iitrayitithi ezikwiyunithi yakho zahluke ngaphezulu kwe-20% kwezo zikwisikimu, zama ukutshintsha amaxabiso aphikisayo ukuze ufumane uluhlu olukumgangatho ofanelekileyo. Umzekelo, ukuba i-voltage yehla nge-R8 kuphela i-0.3 volt, kuya kufuneka ulinciphise ixabiso le-R4 (ixabiso eliqinisekileyo likuwe ukuze ubone) ukuze unyuse isiseko sevolthi yeQ3 kunye nomqokeleli wangoku.

Ezona zinto zibalulekileyo zokuthumba zezi zii-R3 kunye ne-R8. Intsebenzo kufuneka ilunge ukuba basondele kumaxabiso aboniswe kumzobo wesikimu.

Kuba phantse akunakwenzeka ukulinganisa i-voltage ukusuka esangweni ukuya kumthombo (VGS) we-FET, ungayilinganisa i-voltage ekhoyo kwi-R3, kuba iyafana ne-VGS. Lungisa ixabiso le-R3 ngokufanelekileyo, ukuba i-voltage ayikho ngaphakathi kuluhlu lwe-0.8-1.2 volts.

Imida:
Ukusetyenziswa kwale Amplifier ngaphezulu kwe-30 MHz ayikhuthazwanga ngenxa yokufumana kabukhali inzuzo. Ngelixa usebenze ngaphezulu kwe-30 MHz inokufezekiswa ngokusebenzisa imijikelezo e-tuned endaweni yemithwalo yokubuyisela, olo hlengahlengiso lungaphaya kobubanzi beli nqaku.

Thatha ingqalelo xa uphatha i-FET (Q1). Inkolelo eqhelekileyo yeyokuba ii-FET zezi zixhobo zeCMOS zikhuselekile kumonakalo osuka emva kufakelwe kwisekethe, okanye emva kokuba ifakwe kwibhodi yePC. Nangona kuyinyani bakhuselekile ngcono kumbane ombane xa kufakelwe isekethe, basengozini yokonakaliswa yi-tuli; so ungaze uyichukumise i-eriyali ngaphambi kokuba uziphumeze emhlabeni ngokuchukumisa into ethile yentsimbi.

Ilungelo lokushicilela kunye nokuvumelana:
Umthombo: "Incwadana yezoluleko ye-RE", ka-1990. Copyright © URodney A.Kreuter, uTony van Roon, Umagazini we-Radio Electronics, kunye ne-Gernsback Pub, Inc. 1990. Ipapashwe ngemvume ebhaliweyo. (Ukushicilelwa kwe-Gernsback kunye neRadio Electronics akusekho kwishishini). Uhlaziyo lwexwebhu kunye notshintsho, yonke imizobo, i-PCB / Uyilo oluzotywe nguTony van Roon. Ukuthumela kwakhona okanye ukuthatha imizobo ngayo nayiphi na indlela okanye uhlobo lwale projekthi kuthintelwe ngokucacileyo yimithetho yamalungelo obunini bamanye amazwe.