I-DIY Micromitter Stereo FM iTransterter

Ekugqibeleni! - Umsasazi we-FM yestereo into etyiwayo yolungelelwaniso.

Le stereo FM Micromitter entsha ikwazi ukusasaza imiqondiso elungileyo esemgangathweni ophezulu malunga neemitha ezingama-20. Ilungele ukusasaza umculo kumculo we-CD okanye kuwo nawuphi na omnye umthombo ukuze ukwazi ukuthathwa kwenye indawo.

Umzekelo, ukuba awunaye umdlali we-CD emotweni yakho, ungasebenzisa iMicromitter ukusasaza imiqondiso esuka kumdlali we-CD ophathwayo ukuya kwiradiyo yemoto yakho. Ngenye indlela, unokufuna ukusebenzisa iMicromitter ukusasaza isibonakaliso kumdlali wegumbi lakho lokuphumla kwi-CD ukuya kwisamkeli se-FM esikwe kwenye indawo yendlu okanye echibini.

Ngenxa yokuba isekwe kwi-IC enye, eli ziko liludlo lokwakha kwaye lifaneleka kalula kwibhokisi encinci yenkqubo yeplasitiki. Iyasasaza kwibhendi ye-FM (okt, i-88-108MHz) ukuze isiginali yayo ifumaneke kuyo nayiphi na into esemgangathweni ye-FM tuner okanye unomathotholo ophathwayo.

Nangona kunjalo, ngokungafaniyo nee-transmitter zangaphambili ze-FM ezipapashwe kwi-SILICON CHIP, olu luyilo lutsha alunakuqhubeka ngokuguquguqukayo ngaphezulu kwebhendi ye-FM. Endaweni yoko, utshintsho lwendlela ye-DIP ye-4 isetyenziselwa ukukhetha enye yeendlela ezili-14 ezisetiweyo. Ezi ziyafumaneka kumacala amabini agubungela ukusuka kwi-87.7-88.9MHz kunye ne-106.7-107.9MHz ngamanyathelo e-0.2MHz.

Akukho coil zokucoca

Cofa ufumane umfanekiso okhulu

Umzobo.1: umzobo webhloko weRohm BH1417F stereo FM usasazo lwe-IC. Isicatshulwa sicacisa ukuba isebenza njani.

Siqale sapapasha isiguquli se-FM stereo e-SILICON CHIP ngo-Okthobha ka-1988 kwaye salandela oku ngohlobo olutsha ngo-Epreli ka-2001. Ibizwa ngokuba yi-Minimitter, ezi nguqulo zangaphambili zazisekwe kwi-Rohm BA1404 IC engasenziwa enye.

Kuzo zombini iiyunithi zangaphambili, inkqubo yolungelelwaniso ifuna uhlengahlengiso ngononophelo lwe-ferrite Tuning ngaphakathi kweekhoyili ezimbini (i-coil oscillator kunye nekhoyili yokucoca), ukuze ukuphuma kwe-RF kuhambisane nobungakanani bemvamisa ekhethiweyo kumamkeli weFM. Nangona kunjalo, abanye abakhi baba nobunzima koku kuba uhlengahlengiso lwalunobuzaza.

Ngokukodwa, ukuba unedijithali (okt, eyenzelwe) Umamkeli weFM, kuye kwafuneka ukuba usete umamkeli kumafrikhwensi athile kwaye emva koko uqhelanise ngononophelo imvamisa yokudlulisa "ngayo". Ukongeza, kukho unxibelelwano oluthile phakathi kwe-oscillator kunye nohlengahlengiso lwekhoyili kunye oku kudidanise abantu abathile.

Le ngxaki ayikho kule uyilo lutsha, kuba akukho nkqubo yolungelelwaniso lwarhoqo. Endaweni yoko, konke ekufuneka ukwenzile kukuseta i-frequency transmitter usebenzisa i-4-DIP switch kwaye emva koko ucofe inkqubo ephindaphindiweyo kwi-tuner yakho ye-FM.

Emva koko, yinto nje yokuhlengahlengisa i-coil enye xa useta umdlulisi, ukuseta ukusebenza kwe-RF echanekileyo.

Ukuphuculwa kwenkcazo

Umsakazo we-Stereo Micromitter omtsha ngoku sele uvaliwe ngoku ikristali oko kuthetha ukuba iyunithi ayitshixwa rhoqo ngexesha. Ukongeza, ukohlulwa, ukwahlula isitima, umgama wokuya kwingxolo kunye nokutshixwa kwestereo kuphuculwe kakhulu kule yunithi intsha xa kuthelekiswa noyilo lwangaphambili. Iphaneli yokucacisa ineenkcukacha ezithe kratya.

I-BH1417F yokuhanjiswa kwe-IC

Cofa ufumane umfanekiso okhulu

Umzobo.2: obu bukhulu bokuthelekiswa kwesixhobo sokubonisa sibonisa inqanaba lomdibaniso (iphini 5). Ukugxininiswa kwangaphambili kwe-50ms malunga ne-3kHz kubangela ukunyuka kwempendulo, ngelixa i-15kHz ephantsi yokukhuphela ivelisa ukuwa kokuphendula ngaphezulu kwe-10kHz.

Kwintliziyo yokuyila okutsha yi-BH1417F FM stereo transmitter IC eyenziwe yiRhom Corporation. Njengoko sele kukhankanyiwe, kuthatha indawo ngoku kunzima ukufumana i-BA1404 esetyenzisiweyo kuyilo lwangaphambili.

Umzobo.1 ubonakalisa izinto zangaphakathi ze-BH1417F. Ibandakanya konke ukuhanjiswa kweekherry eziyimfuneko kuthumelo lwe-Stereo FM kunye necandelo lolawulo lwekristale elinikezela ukuvaleka okuchanekileyo rhoqo.

Njengoko kubonisiwe, i-BH1417F ibandakanya amacandelo amabini ahlukeneyo e-audio audio, kumjelo osekhohlo nangasekunene. Isiginali yesandi sasekhohlo somatshini osekhohlo sisetyenziswa kwipine ye-chip, ngelixa umjelo wesiteshi esifanelekileyo usetyenziselwa ukumakisha 22. Ezi zixhobo zokumamela ziye zisetyenziswe kwisekethe yokugxininisa yangaphambi kokunyusa amaxesha amaza ngaphezulu kwexesha le-1ms rhoqo (okt. ezo ziqengqelekayo ngaphezulu kwe-50kHz) ngaphambi kokuhambisa.

Ngokusisiseko, ugxininiso lwangaphambili lusetyenziselwa ukuphucula umqondiso we-to-noise ratio yomqondiso we-FM. Isebenza ngokusetyenziswa kwesekethe yokugxininisa yokugxininisa kumamkeli ukufumana amandla amaza omoya emva kokudilizwa, ukwenzela ukuba impendulo ephindaphindiweyo ibuyiselwe kwesiqhelo. Kwangelo xesha, oku kunciphisa kakhulu i-hers eyayiza kubonakala ngenye indlela kumqondiso.

Isixa soxinzelelo lwangaphambi kokuseta ixabiso le-capacitors eliqhagamshelwe kwiikhonkwane 2 & 21 (Qaphela: ixabiso lexesha eliqinisekileyo = 22.7kΩ x ixabiso lesakhono). Kwimeko yethu, sisebenzisa ii-capacitors ze-2.2nF ukuseta ukugxininisa kwangaphambili ukuya kwi-50μs ekumgangatho we-FM wase-Australia.

Ukuvalwa kwemiqondiso kuyabonelelwa kwicandelo lokugxininisa kwangaphambili. Oku kubandakanya ukuhambisa imiqondiso ngaphezulu komda othile, ukuthintela ukulayisha ngaphezulu kula manyathelo. Oko kuthintela ukuguquguqula okungaphezulu kwaye kunciphise ukugqwetha.

Imiqondiso egxininiswe kwangaphambili yitshaneli yasekhohlo nasekunene emva koko iqhubekeka ngokwamanqanaba amabini okuhamba kwesihluzi esisezantsi (LPF), esusa impendulo ngaphezulu kwe-15kHz. Le rolloff iyimfuneko ukuthintela ububanzi bebhendi yomqondiso we-FM kwaye ngumda ojikelezayo ofanayo osetyenziswa ngabasasazi boMbane abasasaza kwintengiso.

Cofa ufumane umfanekiso okhulu

Umzobo.3: umda wobuninzi beempawu ezixabisekileyo zestudiyo FM. Qaphela inqanaba lesandi sokulinganisa ngo-19kHz.

Iziphumo ezivela kwicala lasekhohlo nasekunene ze-LPF nazo zisetyenziswa kwibhloksi eninzi (MPX). Oku kusetyenziselwa ukuvelisa ngokufanelekileyo isambuku (ekhohlo kunye nokunene) kunye neempawu ezahlukeneyo (ekhohlo-ekunene) ezithi zimodareyithwe kwi-38kHz yokuphatha. Umthwali ke uyacinezelwa (okanye asuswe) ukubonelela isiginali ethwele icala eliphindwe kabini. Emva koko kuxutywe kwisishwankathelo (+) sebhloko eline-19kHz iphiko lomqhubi wenqwelomoya ukunika isiphumo somqondiso oyintlanganisela (ngokufaka ikhowudi epheleleyo ye-stereo) kwi-phini yesi-5.

Inqanaba kunye nenqanaba le-19kHz ithoni yokuvavanya isethwe kusetyenziswa i-capacitor kwiphini ye-19.

Umzobo.3 ubonakalisa ubonakaliso besimboli yestereo. Isibonakaliso (L + R) sithatha uluhlu oluhlala rhoqo ukusuka ku-0-15kHz. Ngokwahlukileyo, isibonakaliso esiphathwayo esineqela eliphambi kwecandelo lesithwali (i-LR) sinecala elisezantsi elisuka 23kHz kunye necala eliphezulu kwicala ukusuka 38-38kHz. Njengoko kuphawuliwe, umkhweli we-53kHz akekho.

Ithoni yomqhubi wenqwelomoya eyi-19kHz ikho, nangona kunjalo, kwaye oku kusetyenziswa kumamkeli we-FM ukwakha kwakhona isiriphithi se-38kHz ukuze isimboli ye-stereo ibe nako ukuchaza.

I-38kHz iphawu lokuphindaphindeka kunye ne-19kHz ithoni yomqhubi ithatyathwa ngokwahlula ezantsi i-7.6MHz ikristali ye-oscillator ebekwe kwizikhonkwane ezili-13 kunye nezili-14. Imvamisa yahlulahlulwe kane ukuze kufunyanwe i-1.9MHz emva koko yahlulwe ngama-50 ukufumana i-38kHz. Oku kwahlulahlulwe kubini ukufumanisa ithoni yomqhubi wenqwelo moya eyi-19kHz.

Ukongeza, isiginali ye-1.9MHz yahlulwe nge-19 ukunika isibonakaliso se-100kHz. Esi siginali ke siyasetyenziswa kwisicangca secandelo esibuye sibeke iliso kwimveliso yenkqubo yokulwa. Inkqubo yokuchasa le ngokwenyani yinto eyahlulelanayo eyahlulekayo ekhupha ixabiso lokwahlula uphawu lweRF.

Umyinge wesahlulo se-counter usekwe ngokwamanqanaba e-voltage kwiziphumo i-D0-D3 (izikhonkwane 15-18). Umzekelo, xa i-D0-D3 yonke isezantsi, i-programmable counter yahlula-hlula ngo-877. Ke, ukuba i-oscillator ye-RF isebenza nge-87.7MHz, iziphumo ezahlulelweyo zekhawuntareyitha ziya kuba yi-100kHz kwaye oku kudibana nobungqengqeleko obahlulwe ukusuka kwi-7.6MHz i-oscillator yekristali (okt, i-7.6MHz yahlulahlulwe ngu-4 yahlulwe nge-19).

Cofa ufumane umfanekiso okhulu

Fig.4: isekethe epheleleyo ye-Stereo FM Micromitter. Ukutshintshwa kwe-DIP i-S1-S4 isetha iRF oscillator frequency kwaye oku kulawulwa kukuphuma kwe-PLL kwi-pin 7 ye-IC1. Esi siphumo sivelisa i-Q1 ethi isebenzise ivolthi yokulawula kwi-VC1 ukwahluka amandla ayo. Iziphumo ezivakalayo zomsindo kwiPini yesi-5 zibonelela ngokuguquguqulwa kwamaxesha.

Ukuziqhelanisa, ukuphuma kwesixhobo sokukhangela kwisikhonkwane sesi-7 kuvelisa umqondiso wempazamo ukulawula i-voltage esetyenziswe kwi-diode ye-varicap. Le diode ye-varicap (VC1) iboniswe kumzobo ophambili wesekethe (Fig.4) kwaye iyinxalenye ye-oscillator ye-RF kwisikhonkwane 9. Ukuhamba kwayo rhoqo kwe-oscillation kugqitywa lixabiso lokungafakwali kunye ne-parity efanayo capacitance.

Kuba i-diode ye-varicap iyinxalenye yokubanako, sinako ukutshintsha imvamisa ye-RF ye-oscillator ngokwahluka kwexabiso layo. Ukusebenza, umthamo we-diode ye-varicap yahluka ngokuhambelana nevolthi yeDC esetyenziswe kuyo ngokuphuma kombhobho wesigaba se-PLL.

Ukuziqhelanisa, umatshini wokuchonga wesigaba uguqula i-varicap voltage ukuze iRF oscillator ephindaphindiweyo ibe li-100kHz kwisiphumo esiphikisayo. Ukuba iRF frequency iqhubela phezulu, ukuphuma rhoqo kumqhekezi ocwangcisiweyo kuyaphakama kwaye umvavanyi wesigaba "uya kubona" ​​impazamo phakathi koku kunye ne-100kHz ebonelelwe licandelo leekristale.

Ngenxa yoko, umtshini wesigaba unciphisa i-voltage yeDC esetyenziswe kwi-diode ye-varicap, ngaloo ndlela yandisa amandla ayo. Kwaye oku kuphindise kunciphise imvamisa ye-oscillator ukuyibuyisela “kwilokhi”.

Kwelinye icala, ukuba iRF frequency ihamba isezantsi, imveliso eyahlulelwayo yokwabelana iya kuba ngaphantsi kwe-100kHz. Oku kuthetha ukuba umatshini wokuchonga isigaba ngoku unyusa i-voltage yeDC esetyenzisiweyo kwi-varicap yokunciphisa amandla ayo kunye nokuphakamisa i-RF frequency. Ngenxa yoko, eli lungiselelo lokuphendula le-PLL liqinisekisa ukuba iziphumo zohlukaniso zocwangciso zinokuhlala zilungelelaniswe kwi-100kHz kwaye ke oko kuqinisekisa ukuzinza kwe-oscillator ye-RF.

Ngokutshintsha isahluli sohlelo sinokutshintsha iRF rhoqo. Ke, umzekelo, ukuba simisela isahluli ukuya kwi-1079, i-oscillator ye-RF kufuneka isebenze kwi-107.9MHz ukuze isiphumo som divider programmable sihlale kwi-100kHz.

Ukushintshwa kwemveliso rhoqo

Ewe kunjalo, ukuze udlulise ulwazi oluvakalayo, kufuneka siguqule rhoqo i-oscillator yeRF. Senza oko ngokuguqula i-voltage esetyenziswe kwi-diode ye-varicap usebenzisa ukuphuma komqondiso we-composite kwi-pin 5.

Qaphela, nangona kunjalo, ukuba i-frequency frequency ye-oscillator ye-RF (okt, frequency yenethiwekhi) ihleli ihleli ihleliwe, njengoko imiselweyo ngumahluli wehlelo (okanye ikhawuntingi yenkqubo). Ngenxa yoko, umqondiso we-FM odlulisiweyo wahluka nokuba leliphi icala lokujikeleza kwenqanawa ngokwenqanaba lomqondiso oyinxalenye - okt, imvamisa imodareyithwe.

Ukhetho lokuhluza lweBandpass

Siyile ibhodi ye-PC ukuze ikwazi ukwamkela isihluzo esahlukileyo se-bandpass kwindawo yokukhupha i-11 RF ye-IC1. Esi sihluzo senziwe ngu-Soshin Electronics Co kwaye sibhalwe i-GFWB3. Yisihluzo esincinci esine-terminal eprintiweyo ye-bandpass kwaye isebenza kwi-band ye-frequency ye-3-76MHz.

Uncedo lokusebenzisa eli cebo lokucoca ulwelo kukuba unokungena ngokugqithileyo ngaphezulu nangaphantsi kwebhendi leFM. Oku kubangela ukuphazanyiswa okuncinci kwicala elifanelekileyo kwamanye amaza. Umzobo wecebo lokucoca kunzima kakhulu ukufumana.

Ukuziqhelanisa, icebo lokucoca lifaka endaweni ye-39pF capacitor, kunye nesiphelo sendlela yomhlaba wecebo lokudibanisa kwibhodi yePC yomhlaba. Kungenxa yoko kukho umngxuma phakathi kwe-39pF capacitor ekhokelela. I-39pF kunye ne-3.3pF capacitors kunye ne-68nH kunye ne-680nH inductors emva koko ayifuneki, ngelixa i-inductor ye-68nH ithathelwa indawo ngekhonkco locingo.

Iinkcukacha zesekethe

Cofa ufumane umfanekiso okhulu

Umzobo.5 (a): lo mzobo ubonakalisa ukuba zifakwe njani iindawo ezine zomphezulu womphezulu kwicala lobhedu lebhodi yePC. Qinisekisa ukuba i-IC1 & VC1 ilungelelaniswe ngokuchanekileyo.

Jonga ngoku kwi-Fig.4 kwisekethe epheleleyo ye-Stereo FM Micromitter. Njengoko kulindelwe, i-IC1 yenza icandelo eliphambili lesekethe ngesandla sezinye izinto ezongeziweyo ukuze zigqibezele isishukumisi se-FM stereo.

Iimpawu zomsindo zekhohlo kunye nezasekunene zinefayile kwi-1μF yokugquma kwentsimbi ize emva koko ifakwe kwizangqa ezibandakanya ii-10kΩ zokumelana kunye nee-10kΩ trimpots (VR1 & VR2). Ukusuka apho, imiqondiso idityaniswe kwiikhonkwane 1 & 22 ze-IC1 nge-1μF electrolytic capacitors.

Qaphela ukuba ii-capacitors ze-bipolar ze-1μF zibandakanyiwe ukunqanda ukuhamba kwe-DC okwangoku ngenxa yazo naziphi na ii-DC ezichazayo kwimveliso yomqondiso. Ngokunjalo, ii-capacitors ze-1 onF kwizikhonkwane 1 & 22 ziyimfuneko ukuthintela i-DC yangoku kwii-trimpots, kuba ezi zikhonkwane zimbini zokufaka zinokukhethwa kwihafu yokubonelela. Lo loliwe unesiqingatha senziwe umda usebenzisa i-10μF capacitor kwipine 4 ye-IC1.

I-capacitors yangaphambi kokugxininiswa kwe-2.2nF ikwiipini ezi-2 & 21, ngelixa ii-capacitors eziyi-150pF kwiikhonkwane 3 & 20 ziseta indawo yempepha yokuphuma kwesihluzi esisezantsi. Inqanaba lomqhubi linokumiselwa nge-capacitor kwi-19 XNUMX -kodwa, oku akuqhelekanga kakhulu njengoko inqanaba ngokubanzi lilungile ngaphandle kokongeza i-capacitor.

Ngapha koko, ukongeza i-capacitor apha kunciphisa kuphela ukwahlula kweestereo kuba isigaba sethoni yokulingwa siyaguqulwa xa kuthelekiswa nomyinge we-38kHz.

I-oscillator ye-7.6MHz yenziwa ngokudibanisa i-7.6MHz yekristale phakathi kwezikhonkwane ezi-13 kunye ne-14. Kwindlela yokusebenza, le kristali inxibelelana ngokuhambelana nenqanaba langaphakathi le-inverter. I-Crystal ibeka frequency ye-oscillation, ngelixa i-27pF capacitors inikezela ukulayisha ngokuchanekileyo.

Cofa ufumane umfanekiso okhulu

Umzobo.5 (b): nantsi indlela yokufaka la macandelo phezulu ebhodini ye-PC ukwakha inguqulelo ye-plugnack-powered. Qaphela ukuba i-IC1, VC1 kunye ne-68nH & 680nH inductors zizinto eziphezulu kwaye zibekwe kwicala lobhedu lwebhodi njengoko kubonisiwe kwi-Fig.5 (a)

Isahlulelanisi esingasetyenziswayo (okanye inkqubo yokuphikisana nayo) isetwa kusetyenziswa izinto ezitshintshayo ngezikhonkwane 15, 16, 17 & 18 (D0-D3). Ezi ke ziphumo zihlala zibanjwa ngokuphezulu nge-10kΩ resistors kwaye zitsale xa ii switch zivaliwe. Itheyibhile 1 ibonisa indlela esitshintshiwe ngayo ukukhetha enye yeendlela ezili-14 ezahlukeneyo zokuhambisa.

Iziphumo ze-oscillator ze-RF zikwi-pin 9. Le yi-oscillator yeColpitts kwaye ikwakhiwe usebenzisa i-inductor L1, i-33pF kunye ne-22pF capacitors ezimiselweyo kunye ne-varicap diode VC1.

I-capacitor esisigxina ye-33pF yenza imisebenzi emibini. Okokuqala, ivimba i-voltage yeDC esetyenziswe kwi-VC1 ukunqanda okwangoku ukuba kungene kwi-L1. Kwaye okwesibini, kuba ikwichungechunge kunye neVC1, kunciphisa isiphumo sotshintsho kumthamo we-varicap, njengoko ubonwa ngophawu 9.

Oku, emva koko, kunciphisa uluhlu oluhamba rhoqo lwe-oscillator ye-RF ngenxa yeenguqu kumthamo wolawulo we-varicap kunye nokuvumela ulawulo olungcono lwe-loop yesigaba.

Ngokunjalo, i-capacitor eyi-10pF ithintela ukuhamba kwe-DC ngoku kwi-L1 ukusuka kwi-9. Ixabiso layo eliphantsi likwathetha ukuba isekethe ejikeleziweyo idityaniswa kuphela kwaye oku kuvumela imeko ephezulu ye-Q kumjikelezo we-tuned kunye nokuqalisa ngokulula kwe-oscillator.

Ukumodareyitha i-oscillator

Cofa ufumane umfanekiso okhulu

Fig.6: nantsi indlela yokuguqula ibhodi yinguqulo ebhetriweyo. Yinto nje yokushiya i-D1, ZD1 & REG1 kwaye ufake ii-wire file ezininzi.

Isiphumo sokudibanisa okuhlanganisiweyo kuvela kwi-phini yesi-5 kwaye sondliwa nge-10μF capacitor yokutsala i-VR3. Le trimpot ibeka ubunzulu bemojula. Ukusuka apho, umqondiso obekiweyo udliswa ngenye i-capacitor eyi-10μF kunye nezinye ii-10kΩ zokulwa kwi-VC1 ye-varicap.

Njengoko bekutshiwo ngaphambili, ukuphuma kwesiphatho se-lock lock (PLL) kwi-pin 7 kusetyenziselwa ukulawula ukuhamba rhoqo. Esi siphumo sivelisa inzuzo enkulu ye-Darlington transistor Q1 kwaye oku, kusetyenziswa amandla ombane kulawulo lweVC1 ngokuhamba ngee-3.3kΩ zokulwa ezizimeleyo kunye ne-10kΩ ekwahlulahlulayo.

I-capacitor ye-2.2nF kumdibaniso wesi sixhobo se-3.3kΩ sokubonelela sibonisa ukufota okuphezulu.

Ukucoca ongezelelweyo kunikezelwa yi-capacitor eyi-100μF kunye ne-100Ω resistor eqhagamshelwe kuthotho phakathi kwesiseko se-Q1 kunye nomqokeleli. Umxhathisi we-100Ω uvumela i-transistor ukuba iphendule kutshintsho lwexeshana, ngelixa i-100μF capacitor ibonelela ngefililitha ephantsi. Ukufotwa okuphezulu okuphezulu kunikezelwa yi-47nF capacitor edityaniswe ngqo phakathi kwesiseko se-Q1 kunye nomqokeleli.

Isithambisi esiyi-5.1k connected esidityaniswe kwitreyini ye-5V inika umthwalo. Esi sithintelo sitsala umqokeleli we-Q1 xa i-transistor icimile.

Iziphumo ze-FM

Imveliso ye-RF eguqulweyo ivela kwiphina ye-11 kwaye ifakwe kwifilitha ye-bandpass ye-passive. Umsebenzi wayo kukususa nayiphi na i-harmonics eveliswe ngumodumo nakwimveliso ye-oscillator yeRF. Ngokusisiseko, icebo lokucoca ulwelo lidlula rhoqo kwii-88-108MHz band kodwa liqengqeleze amaza omqondiso ngaphezulu nangaphantsi kwale.

Icebo lokucoca linokuphazamiseka okunyanzelekileyo okungama-75Ω kwaye oku kuhambelana nokukhutshelwa kweephin 1 ye-IC11 kunye nesekethe elandelayo ye-attenuator.

Ii-resistors ezimbini zoluhlu lwe-39Ω kunye ne-56W shunt resistor resistor zenza i-attenuator kwaye oku kunciphisa inqanaba lesiginali kwi-eriyali. Esi sidlali siyimfuneko yokuqinisekisa ukuba umdlulisi usebenza ngendlela esemthethweni evunyelweyo ye-10μW.

Power unikezelo

Cofa ufumane umfanekiso okhulu

Umzobo.7: lo mzobo ubonisa iinkcukacha zokwenza umoya kwi-coil L1. Ngaphambili kuyakucocwa ukuze kungabikho ngaphezulu kwe-13mm ngaphezulu kwebhodi. Sebenzisa i-silicone itywina ukubamba okwangaphambili endaweni, ukuba kuyimfuneko.

Amandla esekethe athatyathwa kwibhokisi ye-9-16V DC okanye ibhetri ye-6V.

Kwimeko yokubonelela ngeplagi, amandla athululelwa ngaphakathi kwi-switch S5 nakwi-diode D1 ebonelela ngokhuseleko olukhuselweyo. I-ZD1 ikhusela isiphaluka ngokuchasene namaxesha amancinci ombane, ngelixa umlawuli we-REG1 ebonelela ngololiwe ozinzileyo + we-5V ukuya kwisekethe.

Kungenjalo, ekusebenzeni kwebhetri, i-ZD1, D1 kunye ne-REG1 ayisetyenziswanga kwaye uqhagamshelo lwe-D1 kunye ne-REG1 lufutshane. Owona mnikelo uphezulu we-IC1 yi-7V, ke ukusebenza kwebhetri nge-6V kufanelekile; Umzekelo, iiseli ezi-4 x ze-AAA kwisibambi se-4 x AAA.

ukwakhiwa

Ibhodi enye ye-PC enamakhowudi angama-06112021 kwaye ilinganise nje i-78 x 50mm ibambe onke amalungu eMicromitter. Oku kufakwe kwityala leplastiki elingama-83 x 54 x 30mm.

Kuqala, jonga ukuba ibhodi ye-PC ingena ngokufanelekileyo na kwimeko. Iikona zinokufuna ukwakheka ukuze zilingane ngaphezulu kweentsika zekona ebhokisini. Kwenziwe, jonga ukuba imingxunya ye-socket yeDC kunye nezikhonkwane ze-RCA zezona zilungileyo. Ukuba i-L1 yangaphambili ayinaso isiseko (jonga ngezantsi), ifakwa ngokuyixhoma kumngxunya ome ngokuqinileyo ukuze ibambe indawo. Jonga ukuba lomngxunya unobubanzi obuchanekileyo.

Umzobo.5 (a) kunye nomfuziselo.5 (b) bonisa indlela iinxalenye ezixhonywa ngayo ibhodi ye-PC. Umsebenzi wokuqala kukufakela izinto ezingaphezulu komphezulu kwicala lobhedu lebhodi yePC. La macandelo abandakanya i-IC1, VC1 kunye nee-inductors ezimbini.

Uya kudinga isinyithi enombala ocolekileyo, iitweetsers, ukukhanya okuqinileyo kunye neglasi yokwenza lo msebenzi. Ngokukodwa, isiphatho sesinyithi esithengisayo kuya kufuneka siguqulwe ngokufayila kwifreyimu yescaba esincinci.

Cofa ufumane umfanekiso okhulu

Kungcono ukufakela iziqwenga ezine zomphezulu womphezulu kuqala (kubandakanya ne-IC), ngaphambi kokufaka iindawo ezisele ngaphezulu kwebhodi yePC. Qaphela ukuba umzimba wekristalu ulele njani kwindawo ezimbini ezikufuphi ne-10kΩ resistors (ifoto yasekhohlo).

I-IC1 kunye ne-varicap diode (VC1) zizixhobo ezikumgangatho, ke qiniseka ukuba uzilungiselele njengoko kubonisiwe kwisambuku. Inxalenye nganye ifakwe ngokubamba endaweni kunye nee-tweezers kwaye emva koko i-soldering lead eyodwa (okanye iphini) kuqala. Kwenziwe, jonga ukuba icandelo libekwe ngokuchanekileyo ngaphambi kokuthengisa ngononophelo (ii) abakhokelayo.

Kwimeko ye-IC, kungcono kuqala ngokukhanyisela iincam zangaphantsi kwephini nganye ngaphambi kokuyifaka kwibhodi yePC. Yinto nje yokufudumeza umkhondo ngamnye ngentsimbi yentsimbi yokuthengisa ukuze ithengise endaweni yakhe.

Qiniseka ukuba usebenzisa isibane esomeleleyo kunye neglasi yokwenza lo msebenzi. Oku akuyi kwenza umsebenzi ube lula kodwa kuya kukuvumela ukuba ujonge unxibelelwano ngalunye njengoko lwenziwe. Ngokukodwa, qiniseka ukuba akukho zifutshane phakathi kweetrekhi ezisecaleni okanye iikhonkwane ze-IC.

Okokugqibela, sebenzisa i-multimeter yakho ukukhangela ukuba iphini nganye iqhagamshelwe kwingoma yayo kwibhodi yePC.

Amalungu aseleyo onke abekwe kwicala elingaphezulu lebhodi yePC ngendlela eqhelekileyo. Ukuba uyakha inguqulelo enefomathi yeplagi, landela umzobo ogqwesileyo oboniswe kwi-Fig.5. Ngenye indlela, kwinguqulo ebhetriweyo ebhetri, shiya i-ZD1 kunye ne-socket yeDC kwaye ungene endaweni ye-D1 & REG1 ngamakhonkco ocingo njengoko kubonisiwe kwi-Fig.6.

Indibano ephezulu

Qala indibano ephezulu ngokufaka ii-resistors kunye neekhonkco zeengcingo. Itheyibhile 3 ibonisa iikhowudi zombala ochasayo kodwa sicebisa ukuba usebenzise imultimeter yedijithali ukukhangela amaxabiso. Qaphela ukuba uninzi lwezinto ezichasayo zibekwe esiphelweni ukugcina indawo.

Nje ukuba ii-resistors zikufake, faka izibalo ze-PC kwiziphumo ze-antenna kunye ne-TP GND kunye namanqaku ovavanyo lwe-TP1. Oku kuyakwenza ukuba kube lula kakhulu ukunxibelelana kula manqaku kamva.

Emva koko, faka ii-trimpots VR1-VR3 kunye ne-PC-Mount RCA soke. Isokhethi ye-DC, i-diode D1 kunye ne-ZD1 emva koko inokufakelwa kuhlobo lweplogack.

Ii-capacitors zinokuhamba ngokulandelayo, zikhathalele ukufaka iindidi ze-electrolytic kunye ne-polarity echanekileyo. I-NP (engacoliyo) okanye i-bipolar (BP) iintlobo ze-elektrolitiki zinokufakwa nangayiphi na indlela. Bacofe yonke indlela ukuya ezantsi kwimingxunya yabo yokufaka, ukuze bangahlali ngaphezu kwe-13mm ngaphezulu kwebhodi yePC (oku kuvumela isiciko ukuba silingane ngokuchanekileyo xa iibhetri ze-AAA zibekwe phantsi kwebhodi yePC ngaphakathi kwebhokisi).

Ii-capacitors ze-ceramic nazo zingafakwa kweli nqanaba. Itheyibhile 2 ibonisa iikhowudi zokumakisha, ukwenza ukuba kube lula kuwe ukubonisa amanani.

Ikhoyili L1

Umzobo.7 ubonisa iinkcukacha zomoya okhoyili we-L1. Inamacala ama-2.5 okutshintsha kwe-0.5 - 1mm yocingo lobhedu (ECW) enenxeba elidityanisiweyo elidityaniswe ngaphambili yiF29 ferrite slug. Ngenye indlela, unokusebenzisa nayiphi na intengiso eyenziweyo engu-2.5 ejikajika iikhoyili.

Iindidi ezimbini zeefomula ziyafumaneka-enye inesiseko esi-2 (esinokuthengiswa ngokuthe ngqo kwibhodi yePC) kunye nesiza ngaphandle kwesiseko. Ukuba eyokuqala inesiseko, kuya kufuneka icothwe malunga ne-2mm, ukuze ukuphakama kwayo (kubandakanywa nesiseko) iyi-13mm. Oku kunokwenziwa kusetyenziswa i-hacksaw entle-eneethothi.

Oko kwenziwe, umoya ikhoyili, shenxisa iziphelo ngqo kwizikhonkwane kwaye umthengisi wekhoyili ungene kwisikhundla. Qaphela ukuba iijika zihambelane omnye komnye (okt. Ikhoyili inxeba elisondeleyo).

Cofa ufumane umfanekiso okhulu

Lo mfanekiso ubonisa indlela eli cala liqhutywa ngayo ukuba lithathe iisokethi zeRCA, isokethi yamandla kunye nesikhokelo se-antenna.

Kungenjalo, ukuba eyangaphambili ayinasiseko, yinqumle ikholaji kwelinye icala, emva koko gxobhoza umngxuma kwibhodi yePC kwindawo ye-L1 ukuze eyokuqala ibambe ngokuqinileyo. Oko kwenziwe, tyhala eyangaphambili emngxunyeni wayo, emva koko umoya wakhona ukuze umoya ophantsi uhlale phezulu kwibhodi.

Qiniseka ukuba uyilahla kude i-insulation kude kuphele i-wire ngaphambi kokuthengiswa kwesikhokelo kwibhodi yePC. I-dabs ezimbalwa ze-silicone sealant emva koko inokusetyenziswa ukuqinisekisa ukuba ikhoyili yangaphambili ihlala isendaweni.

Okokugqibela, i-ferrite slug ingafakwa kwangaphambi kwaye igrunjelwe ukuze umphezulu wayo malunga nokugungxula kunye nomphezulu wangaphambili. Sebenzisa isixhobo sokulungelelanisa esifanelekileyo seplastikhi okanye kubhedu ukukroba kwi-slug - isikulufu esiqhelekileyo sinokuyityhoboza i-ferrite.

ICrystal X1 ngoku ingafakwa. Oku kunyuswe ngokugoba kuqala isikhokelela sayo ngama-90 eedigri, ukuze ihlale ngokuthe tyaba kuwo macala mabini ajongene ne-10kΩ (bona ifoto). Indibano yebhodi ngoku inokugqitywa ngokufaka ukutshintshwa kwe-DIP, i-transistor Q1, i-Administrator (REG1) kunye nesikhokelo se-antenna.

I-eriyali ngokuluhlobo luphantse lube luphantse lube luphawu. Inobude obuyi-1.5m ye-hook yokutsala, kunye nesiphelo esinye esithengiswe kwisiphelo se-antenna. Oku kuya kunika iziphumo ezilungileyo ngokokufikelela kwinqanaba lokuhambisa.

Ilungiselela ityala

Ukuqwalaselwa ngoku kungatshintshelwa kwimeko yeplastiki. Oku kufuna imingxunya kwelinye icala ukuze kulungiselelwe iziseko ze-RCA, kunye nemingxunya kwelinye icala lokukhokelela kwi-antenna lead kunye ne-DC socket (ukuba iyasetyenziswa).

Ukongeza, umngxunya kufuneka ugxunyekwe kwisivalo sokutshintsha kombane.

Cofa ufumane umfanekiso okhulu

Isiphaluka sinokuxhotyiswa kwiiseli ezi-4 x 1.5V AAA ukuba unqwenela ukwenza iyunithi ukuba iphathwe. Qaphela ukuba umnini webhetri ufuna uhlengahlengiso oluthile ukuze alungele yonke into engaphakathi kwimeko (jonga umbhalo).

Kuyimfuneko nokususa ukubethelwa kwecala langaphakathi ecaleni kweendonga zecala ukuya kubunzulu be-15mm ngaphantsi komda ophezulu webhokisi, ukuze ilingane nebhodi yePC. Sisebenzise i-chisel ebukhali ukuzisusa ezi kodwa igriza encinci inokusetyenziswa endaweni yoko. Kwenziwe, kuya kufuneka ususe izimbambo zokugqibela phantsi kwesiciko ukuze ucoce iziqwengana ze-RCA kunye neziseko ze-DC. Ilebheli yephaneli yangaphambili inokudityaniswa kwisivalo.

Inguqulelo ebhetriweyo ibhetri ine-AAA-cell-holder ebekwe phezulu ebhokisini, isiseko sayo sibambe indawo yokudibana necala lobhedu lebhodi yePC. Kukho igumbi elaneleyo lale ndawo kunye nebhodi yePC yokufaka ngaphakathi ecaleni kwezi zixhobo zilandelayo:

(1). Onke amalungu ngaphandle kokutshintsha kombane i-S5 akufuneki aphumele ngaphandle komphezulu webhodi yePC ngaphezulu kwe-13mm. Oku kuthetha ukuba ii-capacitors ze-electrolytic kufuneka zihlale kufutshane nebhodi yePC kwaye eyokuqala ye-L1 kufuneka inqunyulwe kubude obuchanekileyo.

(2). Iseli yokubamba i-AAA imalunga ne-1mm ubukhulu kwaye kufuneka ifayilishwe phantsi kwisiphelo ngasinye, ukuze iiseli ziphume kancinci ngaphezulu kwendawo yokubamba.

(3). Iziqwengana zeesiseko zeRCA nazo zisenokufuna ukuphathwa kancinane, ukuze kungabikho mqobo phakathi kwebhokisi kunye nesiciko emva kwendibano.

Ukuthotyelwa kwe-ACA

Le transmitter yestudio yomsasazi we-FM iyadingeka ukuba ihambisane neRadiocommunication Low Intervention Potential Devices (LIPD) Ilayisensi yeClass 2000, njengoko ikhutshwe nguGunyaziwe woNxibelelwano wase-Australia.

Ngokukodwa, umfutho wothumelo kufuneka ube ngaphakathi kwebhendi ye-88-108MHz kwi-EIRP (Amandla afanayo e-Isotropically Radiated Power) ye-10mW kunye nokushintshwa kohlobo lweFM akukho kungaphezulu kwe-180kHz bandwidth. Udluliselo akufuneki lubekho rhoqo kwisikhululo sikanomathotholo (okanye umphindisi okanye isikhululo sokuguqula) esisebenza ngaphakathi kwendawo yelayisensi.

Ulwazi oluthe kratya luyafumaneka kwi www.aca.gov.au webhsayithi.

Ingcaciso yelayisensi yeklasi ye-LIPDs inokukhutshelwa apha:
www.aca.gov.au/aca_home/legislation/radcomm/class_licences/lipd.htm

Uvavanyo kunye nohlengahlengiso

Eli nqaku lingumlo okwenyani. Umsebenzi wokuqala ukutsala i-L1 ukuze i-oscillator ye-RF isebenze ngaphezulu koluhlu oluchanekileyo. Ukwenza oko, landela le nyathelo ngenyathelo:

(1). Cwangcisa isantya sokuhambisa usebenzisa ii-DIP switch, njengoko kubonisiwe kwiTheyibhile 1. Qaphela ukuba kufuneka ukhethe imvamisa engasetyenziswanga njengesikhululo sentengiso kwindawo yakho, kungenjalo ukuphazamiseka kuya kuba yingxaki.

(2). Qhagamshela i-multimeter ekhokelayo esiqhelekileyo kwi-TP GND kunye nesikhokelo sayo esihle sokuphina kwi-8 ye-IC1. Khetha uluhlu lwe-DC volts kwimitha, faka amandla kwiMicromitter kwaye ujonge ukuba ufumana ukufunda okusondeleyo kwi-5V ukuba usebenzisa iplagi DC.

Ngenye indlela, imitha kufuneka ibonise ibhetri yombane ukuba usebenzisa iiseli ze-AAA.

(3). Hambisa i-multimeter elungileyo ekhokelela kwi-TP1 kwaye uhlengahlengise i-slug kwi-L1 yokufunda malunga ne-2V.

Cofa ufumane umfanekiso okhulu

Isiphatho sebhetri sihlala ezantsi kwecala, phantsi kwebhodi yePC.

I-oscillator ngoku yenziwe kakuhle. Akukho lunye uhlenga-hlengiso kwi-L1 ekufuneka lufunwa ukuba emva koko utshintshela kolunye ubunjani ngaphakathi kwebhendi ekhethiweyo. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba utshintshela kwisandi esikukunye ibhendi, i-L1 kuya kufuneka ilungiswe ukuba ifundwe nge-2V kwi-TP1.

Ukuseta ii-trimpots

Umzobo.8: ubungakanani obugcweleyo bepaneli yomsebenzi wobugcisa.

Konke okuseleyo ngoku kukulungelelanisa ii-trimpots VR1-VR3 ukuseta inqanaba lomqondiso kunye nobunzulu bemojula. Inkqubo yenyathelo-nyathelo yile ilandelayo:

(1). Beka i-VR1, VR2 & VR3 kwiziko labo. I-VR1 kunye neVR2 inokuhlengahlengiswa ngokudlula kwisikrelemali kumaziko ee-RCA μ, ngelixa i-VR3 inokutshintshwa ngokuhambisa μF capacitor ngaphambili kwayo kwicala elinye.

(2). Faka umsungulo we-Stereo FM okanye irediyo kwirandi ehambisa rhoqo. Isixhobo somsakazo we-FM kunye nokuhambisa kufuneka ekuqaleni kubekwe malunga neemitha ezimbini ngokwahlukeneyo.

(3). Qhagamshela umthombo wesimboli ye-stereo (umzekelo, umdlali we-CD) kwizingeniso zeSRCA kwaye ujonge ukuba ifunyenwe sisixhobo okanye unomathotholo.

Fig.9: ubungakanani obugcweleyo bephethini yebhodi yePC.

(4). Uhlengahlengiso lwe-VR3 ye-anticlockwise de isalathiso se stereo siphume kumamkeli, emva koko ulungelelanise i-VR3 ngewindows kule ndawo nge-1 / 8th jikele.

(5). Uhlengahlengiso lwe-VR1 kunye ne-VR2 yesandi esona siphuma kwisandi - kuya kufuneka unqumle okwethutyana umthombo wophawu ukwenza uhlengahlengiso ngalunye. Kufuneka kubekho umqondiso owaneleyo "wokuphelisa" nayiphi na ingxolo yangemva kodwa ngaphandle kokuphazamiseka okubonakalayo.

Qaphela ngokukodwa ukuba i-VR1 kunye ne-VR2 nganye kufuneka isethwe kwindawo enye, ukugcina umlinganiso wesitrato sasekhohlo nasekunene.

Yile nto- ye-Stereo FM Micromitter yakho ilungele isenzo.

Itheyibhile 2: Amakhowudi eCapacitor
ixabiso Ikhowudi ye-IEC Ikhowudi ye-EIA
47nF 47n 473
10nF 10n 103
2.2nF 2n2 222
330pF 330p 331
150pF 150p 151
39pF 39p 39
33pF 33p 33
27pF 27p 27
22pF 22p 22
10pF 10p 10
3.3pF 3p3 3.3
Itheyibhile 3: Iikhowudi zombala ezichasayo
Hayi. ixabiso Ikhowudi ye-4-Band (1%) Ikhowudi ye-5-Band (1%)
1 xnumxkω umbala obomvu o-orenji umbala omnyama obomvu onsundu
8 xnumxkω ngumbala omdaka o-brown mdaka omnyama omnyama obomvu
1 xnumxkω nsundu ngombala obomvu onsundu luhlaza omdaka ngombala omdaka
2 xnumxkω i-orenji ebomvu brown iorenji e-brown emdaka brown
1 100Ω ngumbala omdaka omnyama ngumbala omdaka omnyama omnyama
1 56Ω luhlaza oluhlaza okomdaka luhlaza okomhlaza oluhlaza okomdaka
2 39Ω orenji mhlophe qwa omnyama orenji mhlophe golide emnyama
Dwelisa iindawo

I-1 ibhodi ye-PC, ikhowudi 06112021, 78 x 50mm.
Ibhokisi enye yokusetyenziswa kweplastiki, 1 x 83 x 54mm
Ileyibheli yephaneli yangaphambili, i-1 x 79mm
1 7.6MHz okanye 7.68MHz ikristalu
I-1 ispy sub subanaature switch (iJaycar ST-0300, Altronics S 1415 okanye equiv.) (S5)
Iicokets ze-PC ezi-2 ze-RCA (zitshintshiwe) (I-Altronics P 0209, iJaycar PS 0279)
I-1mm ye-PC-Mount DC-sokisi yamandla
I-1 4-indlela yokutshintsha kwe-DIP
I-1 2.5 ijikelezisa iikhoyili eziguqukayo (L1)
1 4mm F29 ferrite slug
I-1 680nH (0.68μH) yomphezulu wentaba ye-inductor (1210A kesi) (Farnell 608-282 okanye efanayo)
I-1 68nH yomphezulu intaba ye-inductor (imeko engu-0603) (uFarnell 323-7886 okanye efanayo)
I-1 100mm ubude be-1mm ye-enameled yocingo yobhedu
I-1 50mm ubude be-0.8mm yentsimbi ebotshiweyo yobhedu
I-1 1.6m ubude yeengcingo zokutsala ucingo
Izibalo ezi-3 zePC
1 4 x umnikazi weseli we-AAA (uyimfuneko ekusebenzeni kwebhetri)
Iiseli ezi-4 ze-AAA (ziyafuneka ekusebenzeni kwebhetri)
I-3 10kΩ yee-trimpots ezithe nkqo (VR1-VR3)

Semiconductors

1 BH1417F Rohm umphezulu wentaba osihlalo woKhozi FM (IC1)
I-1 78L05 umlawuli wamandla aphantsi (REG1)
I-1 MPSA13 iDarlington transistor (Q1)
I-1 ZMV833ATA okanye i-MV2109 (VC1)
I-1 24V 1W zener diode diode (ZD1)
1 1N914, 1N4148 diodeyidi (D1)

sebenza kakuhle

I-2 100μF 16VW i-PC electrolytic
I-5 10μF 25VW i-PC electrolytic
2 1μF Ukuphefumla okubangelwa kukuphazamiseka kwengqondo
I-2 1μF 16VW electrolytic
1 47nF (.047F) i-polTter ye-MKT
I-2 10nF (.01μF) yomdaka
3 2.2nF (.0022F) i-polTter ye-MKT
I-1 330pF i-ceramic
I-2 150pF i-ceramic
I-1 39pF i-ceramic
I-1 33pF i-ceramic
I-2 27pF i-ceramic
I-1 22pF i-ceramic
I-1 10pF i-ceramic
I-1 3.3pF i-ceramic

Resistors (0.25W, 1%)

1 22kΩ 1 100Ω
8 10kΩ 1 56Ω
1 5.1kΩ 2 39Ω
2 3.3kΩ

iinkcukacha
Ukuhamba rhoqo I-87.7MHz ukuya kwi-88.9MHz ngamanyathelo angama-0.2MHz
I-106.7MHz ukuya kwi-107.9MHz ngamanyathelo e-0.2MHz (i-14 iyonke)
Iyonke i-Harmonic Ukwahlula-hlula (THD) ngokwesiqhelo i-0.1%
Ukugxininisa kwangaphambili ngokwesiqhelo i-50ms
Isihluzi sePasi eliPhantsi I-15kHz / 20dB / ishumi leminyaka
Ukwahlula isitayile ngokwesiqhelo 40dB
Ibhalansi yesiteshi Ngaphakathi? 2dB (inokuhlengahlengiswa ngetrimpots)
Ukuguqulwa kwemiloli 15%
Amandla okuvelisa iRF (EIRP) Ngokwesiqhelo i-10μW xa usebenzisa i-inokwakha indawo
Umbane wokubonelela 4-6V
Bonelela ngoku I-28mA kwi-5V
Inqanaba lokufaka lomsindo I-220mV RMS ephezulu kwi-400Hz kunye ne-1dB yokunyanzeliswa komda
Ungathenga iimveliso ezichazwe kweli nqaku apha:

ST0300: I-SUB-MINI TOGGLE I-SPDT I-SAGER TAG IXELisiwe

Ezi zinto zilandelayo unokuzikhuphela kule nqaku: