Umsasazi we-10mW FM

~ Umsasazi woMsakazo we-10mW ~

Inqanaba lokuQala-

Umsasazi we-FM liNqanaba loku-1 kwinqanaba loku-3 iNqanaba le-7 le-Watt FM Transmitter.

… Ivuselelwe nge-30 ka-Okthobha, 2002


Ukufumana iinyawo zakho

Ukuba awuzange wenze i-LPFM (isandisi-mandla esiphantsi soguquguquko) ngaphambili, kuya kuba bubulumko ukuqala ngale projekti… ukukhangela ulwazi lwento ebandakanyekileyo ekwakheni iyunithi yakho ye-FM..ngokufumana 'izandla' -mva ' Nokuba umsasazi wohlobo lwe-10mW FM ebeya kubonakala ngathi uyiprojekthi elula kakhulu njengoko abanye besenokuthi, musa ukukhohliswa ukucinga ukuba yonke into izakuhamba 'kulungile'. Igama 'elula' kule projekthi, lithetha kuphela ukuba kukho izinto ezimbalwa kwiprojekthi xa kuthelekiswa nezinye iiyunithi ze-LPFM. Igama 'elula' alithethi ukuba iyunithi iya kusebenza kakuhle kwaye igqityiwe xa uyigqibile. Kusenokuba nzima kakhulu ukwenza ukuba iyunithi isebenze ngokufanelekileyo… okanye loo nto… konke konke..xa uthe ekugqibeleni wazithengisa zonke izinto ezisebhodini wazikhanyisa. Izinto ezininzi eziguquguqukayo ziza kudlala ngokusebenza kwibala le-vhf. Oyena uphakamileyo uya rhoqo, kokukhona 'uthintekayo' la macandelo aba. Ndinike inkqubo yenyathelo-nyathelo ngokwenza iyunithi ye-10mW. Eyona nto ibaluleke kakhulu kule projekthi kukuhlala unyanisekile kuwo onke amacandelo ... oko kukuthi, ukufaka endaweni akufuneki kuvunyelwe. Ndicebisa ukuba usebenzise icandelo ngalinye endilithethileyo ndiludwelisile… kwaye hayi ukuba lilahle kulo. Ukuba unamathela kwindlela yam echanekileyo yokwenza le yunithi, amathuba okuba usebenze ekugqibeleni ayakuba phezulu. Kwaye ukuba ugcina unyamezelo kufutshane nawe ... uya kulibona kakhulu ukuba iyunithi le iyenza kakuhle! Nje ukuba wenze iiyunithi ukuba iqhube kakuhle kunye nezinto ozithandayo ... ungaqhubeka ukongeza inqanaba lesibini ... iyunithi engama-200mw emva koko kamva, eyesithathu, iyunithi ye-7 watt. Ndicebisa esi sigqibo sobulumko kwinto yokuba ndizenzile ezi zontathu… kwaye ukuqala kwasekuqaleni yinto elungileyo!


If uqhele ukwenza ezi transmitter ze-LPFM kwaye wenze kakuhle kuzo, ungafuna ukutsibela ngaphezulu kwe-10mW kwaye uqale nge-200mW okanye iwitha eyi-7 ... konke kukuwe. Kodwa ndingathi, njengomntu owenze ezi zintathu zokudlulisela… kuya kuba bulumko ukuqala ukusuka ekuqaleni (Oko kukuthi, ukuqala ngeyunithi ye-10mW), emva koko sebenza indlela yakho uye kwitransmitter elandelayo… ngoyena mfundisi ubalaseleyo emhlabeni!

SO ngoku, mhlobo wam, unokhetho olu-3 losasazo lwe-FM onokuthi ukhethe kuzo: I-10mW, i-200mW okanye i-7 Watt.

These ezintathu zokudluliselwa kwe-FM zikho kule webhusayithi. Ke ngaphandle kokuqhubela phambili, ndinikezela ezi projekthi zintle zomsakazo we-FM abo bakhetha ukuphuma bayenze.

… Kwaye iprojekthi iqale!


Isiguquli seMilliwatt FM ezilishumi

Masiqale…

TUhlobo lwePCB yakhe yeyona ndlela isetyenziswayo yoyilo olusetyenziswa kwi-7 Watt FM Transmitter. Jonga umfanekiso otyhidiweyo kwiphepha ledatha le-7 Watt. Qaphela kulo mfanekiso ... onke amalungu athengiswayo aye kubhedu ... omabini amacandelo kunye nobhedu kwicala elinye le-PCB. Ndigqibe kwelokuba ndisebenzise esi sitayile njengoko sikhawuleza kwaye kulula ukutshintsha izinto… kwiinyanga ezininzi zovavanyo. Ke, akukho mingxunya iya kubanjiswa kwi-PCB, ngaphandle kwemingxunya emine yokufaka. Xa ujonga i-10mW PCB template kwi ngezantsi, kukho iindawo ezili-12 zentaba yobhedu (enombala we-orenji), ezijikelezwe ziindawo ezimhlophe. Ezi ndawo zimhlophe kulapho 'kungekho lubhedu'. Nantsi indlela ekufuneka uyenze ngayo iPCB yakho. Ndineziphumo ezihle kakhulu ekusebenziseni esi sitayile. Nje ukuba uyenze isebenze, unokufuna ukwenza enye i-PCB… enemingxunya… nantoni na oyithandayo. Kodwa uluvo lwam 'olomeleleyo' kukuba wenze i-PCB 'yokuqala' ngokwemiyalelo yam. Uya kuqinisekisa ukuboniswa okuhle ekugqibeleni!

Go phambili kwaye uprinte ikopi yale template ye-PCB ingasentla. Kuya kufuneka ibeyi-91 mm's nge-50mm's. Ukuba akukho njalo, thumela umzobo kwinkqubo yemizobo kunye nokuncwina kunye / okanye wolule kude kube kugqitywe imilinganiselo efanelekileyo. Nje ukuba yenziwe, ungaqhubeka nokwenza iPCB yakho ngale ndlela ibonakala ngayo kwitemplate. Makhe nditsho kwakhona ... kukho iziqithi ezili-12 zobhedu (apho ubona iorenji yombala) kule template ingasentla. Ezijikeleze ezi ziqithi ziindawo ezingenabhedu (apho ubona umbala umhlophe). Le template ingasentla kufuneka ilungiswe ngokusondeleyo kangangoko kunokwenzeka ukuze kubenzima ukubila.

When ugqibile ugqiba kwakho 'ngqo' PCB, jikisa umngxunya apho isikwere esincinci esimnyama kwitemplate. Emva koko tyaba i-18 ye-geythi eqinileyo yobhedu ngokusebenzisa umngxunya kunye nomthengisi ocingwayo ukuya kwicala lamanqanaba kunye nomva we-PCB. Emva koko unqumle okugqithisileyo. Oku kuyakuqhuba indiza yomhlaba (esecaleni lePCB) efunekayo kwicala elingasemva lePCB.

ONce eyenziweyo ... ungaqhubeka ukuqala kwaye uthengise onke amacandelo akho kwi-PCB. Onke la macandelo athengiswa endaweni ethe nkqo 'yokuma', ngaphandle kwala makhola mabini. Ukuze ubone ukuba indawo ibekwe phi kwi-PCB, jonga apha ngezantsi…

Isikhokelo sokuBekwa kwecandelo

JUdibanisa amanani 'kwiSikhokelo seNdawo yokuFakwa' kwicandelo elinombuzo kwi 'Candelo leTshathi'.

Itshathi yeekhompyuter

I-1A - 5.6K 1/2 ye-Watt Carbon ResistorI-1B - .001uF I-capacitor ye-Ceramic I-13-I-Co-Core ye-Co-ehlanganisiweyo
I-2 - I-Microphone ye-Electret I-14 ye-4.7pF yeCeramic Capacitor
I-3 - 1uF i-Electrolytic Capacitor I-15 ukuya kwi-5-30 iCapacitor eguquguqukayo
I-4 - 4.7K 1/2 I-Watt Carbon Resistor I-16 - 1N914 Diode
I-5 - 47K 1/2 I-Watt Carbon Resistor I-17 - 1uF i-Electrolytic Capacitor
I-6 - 1.2K 1/2 I-Watt Carbon Resistor I-18-PNP 2N2907 okanye i-MPS2907 iTransistor
I-7 - 5.6K 1/2 I-Watt Carbon Resistor I-19 - .001uF I-capacitor ye-Ceramic
I-8 - 100 i-Ohm 1/2 ye-Watt Carbon Resistor I-20 - 4.7K 1/2 I-Watt Carbon Resistor
I-9-Isikhokelo esifanelekileyo soQinisekiso lwaMandla I-21 - 1uF i-Electrolytic Capacitor
I-10-Isiphelo sendlela yeAntena I-22-NPN 2N3904 okanye i-MPS3904 iTransistor
I-11-Isikhokelo esingesihle soNikezelo lwaMandla I-23 - 22K 1/2 I-Watt Carbon Resistor
I-12-Yabanjiswa umlenze kwi-coil yomoya

Ukuhamba nolwazi kwiTransmitter

L1 Ngaba ikhoyili yomoya evaliweyo. Cofa nje COFA APHA ukubona indlela eyakhiwe ngayo i-L1.

If ufana nam kwaye awunazixhobo zovavanyo, ngaphandle kwemitha ye-watt yekhaya kunye ne-DVM, ungawufumana owona myalezo uphambili usebenzisa irediyo ye-AM / FM kwaye uyitshintshe kwiFM ... emva koko uye kuyo yonke indlela eya isantya esiphantsi kakhulu ... yonke indlela eya ekhohlo kwidayal yerediyo ... ejikeleze i-87 Mhz ... kulapho apho nditshintshe khona iikhoyili. Kuya kufuneka uvavanye koku njengoko umdlulisi engazukubeka nje kuphela isandi esiphindaphindiweyo se-oscillating, kodwa kunye ne-harmonics. Ukuba bekukho kuphela isibonisi esisodwa sokuhambisa esivela rhoqo esihamba rhoqo onqwenela ukusidlulisela… umntu ngekhe angabi nangxaki yokuyifumana… kodwa ngalo lonke uphawu oluphambili… kukho imiqondiso ebonakalayo kwicala ngalinye eliyintloko. Kungakhathaza kakhulu ukubamba lo mqondiso 'ophambili'. Unokude ucinge ukuba unophawu oluphambili, xa ngokwenyani, ujonga kuhlobo oluthile lwespredishithi 'esona siphambili' kuluhlu olufutshane olufutshane. Ndithethile nabantu malunga noku, kwaye bathi nabo bayifumene xa bezama ukufaka uphawu olukhulu. Ke ke khumbula oku… nayiphi na into ebonelela ukuba ikunike umgama we-furtherest… ukuba, mhlobo wam, kuya kufuneka ibeyona nto iphambili (kwaye hayi uhlobo lokudubula) olo lwarhoqo. Ukuziqhelanisa kunye nomonde ziya kuba zizandla zakho zokunceda!

Imakrofoni ye-Electret… Irediyo Shack ithengisa le microphone njengendawo yesibini yokuqhagamshela kunye nonxibelelwano lwesiphelo sesithathu. Sebenzisa uxhulumaniso lwesiphelo sesibini. Icala elixhunyiwe kulwakhiwo lombhobho lelona icala lingalunganga kwaye i-terminal iya emhlabeni kwi-PCB. Enye i-terminal yicala elifanelekileyo. Kananjalo, xa useRadio Shack yale nto kunye nezinye izinto ezidweliswe ngezantsi, kuya kuba bubulumko ukukhetha malunga neenyawo ezingama-75 ohm ikhebula. Ngale ntambo 'unokwandisa' ubude beemakrofoni ye-electret ukuze ingasondeli kwisekethe. Ndinelungelo lam kwi-intshi ezi-3, ezingaphandle nangaphandle kwesekethe kwaye zibonakala zisebenza kakuhle ngokubhekisele kwingcaciso; ungayichazanga intloko yakho ukuba ihlale kude kwiiyunithi ukuze ingachaphazeli ifrikwensi (bona 'isekethe yetanki' ngezantsi).

I-2N3904 okanye i-MPS3904 iTransistor… Le transistor inokuthengwa kwiRadio Shack. Jonga 'Isikhokelo sokuBekwa kwecandelo' soqhelaniso olufanelekileyo lomlenze ngamnye wetransist. Sika yonke imilenze kwi-transistor ukuya kwi-1/4 ye-intshi ngaphambi kokuthengisa.

I-2N2907 okanye i-MPS2907 PNP Transistor… Le transistor inokuthengwa kwiRadio Shack. Jonga 'Isikhokelo sokuBekwa kwecandelo' soqhelaniso olufanelekileyo lomlenze ngamnye wetransist. Sika yonke imilenze kwi-transistor ukuya kwi-1/4 ye-intshi ngaphambi kokuthengisa.

I-5-30pF eguquguqukayo yeCapacitor… IRadio Shack ayiboneleli ngoku. IMouser Electronics, apha e-USA, banazo. Yiya kwiphepha le-7 leWtt yeTransmit yeWebhusayithi ukuze ubone inombolo yefowni yasimahla yeMouser's. Esi sesinye sezixhobo ezibini ezenza umjikelo we-oscillating (eyaziwa ngokuba yi- 'tank circ'). I-capacitor eguquguqukayo iyadingeka ukwenzela ukulungelelanisa umjikelezo othile wokuhambisa. Kuya kuba bubulumko ukuqonda indlela esebenza ngayo isiphaluka setanki… kuba siyile capacitor eguquguqukayo, kunye nekhola yomoya esembindini oya kuthi uyivavanye… ukuze ube nokuhambisa umgama ojikelezayo oyifunayo. Iya kushiyeka kuwe ukuze iphambuke-kwisiginali yakho yokuhambisa kwisamkeli. Nje COFA APHA Ukuqonda ukuba ungayirhuqa njani idlulisi yakho xa sele uyenzile kwaye ulungele 'ukhanyiso' lokuqala.

'Ukubanxibisa' i-Co-Core Coil… Esi sisixhobo esenziwe ekhaya kwaye kufuneka senziwe nguwe. Nje COFA APHA ukwakhiwa kwekhoyili. Esi sesinye sezixhobo ezibini ezenza umjikelo we-oscillating (eyaziwa ngokuba yi- 'tank circ'). Ikhoyili iyafuneka ukwenzela ukuhlenga-hlengisa ukugqithiswa okukhethekileyo. Kuya kuba bubulumko ukuqonda indlela esebenza ngayo isiphaluka setanki… kuba le yi- 'Tosed' Air-Core Coil, kunye ne-5-30pF eguquguqukayo yeCapacitor, oya kuyilinga… ukuze ubambe isantya esilihambisayo esifunayo. Iya kushiyeka kuwe ukuze iphambuke-kwisiginali yakho yokuhambisa kwisamkeli. Nje COFA APHA Ukuqonda ukuba ungayirhuqa njani idlulisi yakho xa sele uyenzile kwaye ulungele 'ukhanyiso' lokuqala.

I-Diode ye-1N914… Esi sixhobo sinokuthengwa kwiRadio Shack. Qwalasela umaleko kwi diode. I-cathode (lelo icala elibi le-diode) iya emhlabeni.

I-4.7pF i-Disk Capacitor eQinisekisiweyo… Esi sisixhobo esingafakwanga mngcipheko, oko kuthetha ukuba akunandaba ukuba ngowuphi umlenze osetyenziselwa ukubeka indawo. Qiniseka nje ukuba umlenze omnye uya kwi-emitter ye-MPS2907 kwaye omnye umlenze uye kuqokelela lwe-MPS2907. Gcina umgama wemilenze ungabi ngaphezu kwe-1/8 ye-intshi kwi-transistor ekhankanyiweyo.

Ukuphikiswa kwe-27K… Lo mntu uphikisayo akafumaneki kwiRadio Shack. Ke ngoko, thenga i-5.6K kunye ne-22K resistor kwaye uzifake kuthotho kwi-PCB. I-ohmage iyakusondela ngokwaneleyo. Bendiqaphele ukuba akukho tshintsho kumsindo ngokusebenzisa le ndlela.

I-Antenna… Ndisebenzise i-eriyali yeenyawo ezine ukuya kwezintlanu kule yunithi kwaye ikwaphuphuma nayo. Ungathenga i-antenna yeenyawo ezine okanye ezintlanu zee-telescopic kwiRadio Shack. Olunye ukhetho lunokuba ziingubo ezimbini ezilungelelaniswe kakuhle zaza zadityaniswa zaza zachetywa zaya kuthi xhaxhe ngeenyawo.


kwaye ekugqibeleni…

Once xa ugqibile ukwenza iyunithi, ilungile ukuba icocekile ukuya kuthi ga kwi-88 Mhz. Oko kuthetha ukuba esi sisiphelo esisezantsi kakhulu somculo we-FM. Fumana umamkeli we-FM obhobhozayo kwaye uyihambise ukuya kuthi ga kwi-88 MHz. Emva koko beka irediyo yomamkeli we-FM malunga neenyawo ezingama-50 ukusuka kuhanjiso. Guqula umthamo ube malunga nesiqingatha kumamkeli. Emva koko qalisa ukuhlengahlengisa i-capacitor yakho eguquguqukayo kwitranster, ngelixa uthetha kuyo, ukukhetha izwi lakho kumamkeli wakho. Xa uqhelene nokungena kumjikelo wakho othile, kwaye wanelisekile yindlela ekuvakala ngayo, dibana nomhlobo kwaye uphume uye ezweni okanye nayiphi na indawo evulekileyo ebanzi kwaye ubone ukuba iyunithi inokudlulisela kude kangakanani. Uhlala kunye nomdlulisi ngelixa uthetha kumboko kwaye umhlobo wakho ngokuthe ngcembe ahambuke kuwe ngelixa ubambe umamkeli. Mxelele ukuba aphakamise ingalo yakhe ... xa ilizwi lakho lingasavakali. Emva koko uya kuba nombono ocacileyo malunga nokuba iyedlula kangakanani iyunithi yakho. Khumbula ukugcina naluphi na uhlobo lwesithintelo ngaphandle 'komgca-wokubona' ngokunxulumene nomdlulisi kunye nomamkeli. Ndibekele ileta undazise indlela ezihambe ngayo. Ndikunqwenelela okuhle kodwa. Kwaye ke mhlobo wam…

… Masiqalise iprojekthi!